Natural Perspective: Fungus Kingdom

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید پرسپکتیو در ۲۲ آذر ۱۳۹۳

Page 7 of 38

The Fungus Kingdom

(Last modified: 3 Jan 2002)

In further to a beauty of mushrooms, fungi yield a vicious partial of nature’s continual rebirth: fungi recycle passed organic matter into useful nutrients. Sometimes a mildew doesn’t wait for a biomatter to die, in that box a mildew is called a parasite. Many plants, however, are contingent on a assistance of a mildew to get their possess nutrients, vital in a symbiotic attribute called a mycorrhizal association. Plants aren’t a usually ones, however, to suffer fungi.

Fungi digest food outward their bodies: they recover enzymes into a surrounding environment, violation down organic matter into a form a mildew can absorb. Mycorrhizal associates advantage from this by interesting materials eaten by a fungi flourishing among their roots.

Fungi imitate by releasing spores from a fruiting body. The fruit, called a mushroom, releases spores into a air, and a breeze carries a spores off to start a subsequent generation.

Around 100,000 category of fungi are divided into 5 phyla, formed mostly on a characteristics of their reproductive organs.

Club Fungi (Basidiomycota)

When people consider of mushrooms, a fruit of Basidiomycota probably
comes to mind. Many mushrooms in this group demeanour like
umbrellas flourishing from a belligerent or like shelves flourishing on wood, but
some, such as a latticed stinkhorn, look
quite different.

Among a some-more famous families in this group are Agaricus — including a supermarket variety
of symbol mushrooms; Amanita — including
species that are deadly, delicious, or even hallucinogenic; Boletus
best famous for a
King
Bolete
(called Porcini in Italy and Cepe in France);
and Cantherellus — famous for a tasty and pleasing Chanterelle.

These
families embody though a few of a mushrooms sought by collectors and
gourmets from among a 25,000 category in this phylum.

Species in this group furnish spores on a club-like structure called a basidium. The basidium might grow giveaway or be trustworthy to a aspect called a hymenium.

Class: Homobasidiomycetae furnish spores on a hymenium.


Subclass: Hymenomycetes
Produce spores on unprotected surfaces — releasing a spores gradually by structures such as pores or gills.
Orders: Agaricales, Aphyllophorales (3 examples)
Subclass: Gasteromycetes


Produce spores on secluded surfaces, releasing spores usually after a cover ruptures. Pictured next are a puffball and earthstar of a Order Lycoperdales and dual stinkhorns of a Phalales Order.


Class: Heterobasidiomcetae
Produce spores on a ends of rare threads. Examples include: preserve fungi (pictured), rusts, smuts

Sac Fungi (Ascomycota)

Ascomycota furnish their spores in special pods or sac-like structures called asci. Included among a 25,000 category of this group are a cherished Morel and Truffle mushrooms (class: Euascomycetae).


Other member of this category embody Elfin Saddles (above/left), Morels, Cup Fungi, and Flask Fungi (below, left-to-right)

Another category of this phylum, Hemiascomycetae, is valued
more for a activity than a beauty. Sacharomyces cerevisiae
(Brewers, Bakers, and Nutritional Yeast) assistance us furnish such popular
staples as drink and bread.

Other Classes: Loculoascomycetae, Laboulbeniomycetae

Lichens (Mycophycophyta)

Once a beauty of mushrooms has enticed your larger inspection of a timberland floor, we can’t assistance though notice lichens as well.

Lichens are a symbiotic kinship between
fungus and algae (or infrequently photosynthesizing bacteria). The
algae yield nutrients while a mildew protects them from the
elements. The outcome is a new mammal clearly opposite from its
component species.

Though no longer deliberate a correct phylum, a radically opposite inlet of these symbiots warrants apart diagnosis in this overview of a mildew kingdom.

Around 25,000 category of Lichens have been identified by scientists.

Conjugation Fungi (Zygomycota)

The best famous of this group of around 600 category is black bread mold, such as Rhizopus stolonifer.

Imperfect Fungi (Deuteromycota)

Around 25,000 additional mildew category are grouped in this group — these category are a “left-overs” that don’t fit good into any of a other groups. Members embody Trichophyton (Athlete’s foot), Penicillium (Penicillin), and Candida albicans (“Yeast” infections).

Page 7 of 38


Annotated Bibliography

Arora, David, Mushrooms Demystified (2nd edition),
Ten Speed Press, Berkeley, 1986

This is a lawful margin beam to mushrooms of a Western United States. The book provides consummate keys for identifying mushrooms, as good as sharp-witted anecdotes and associated information for a pledge and consultant alike.

Alexopoulos, Constantine J., C. W. Mims, M. Blackwell, Introductory Mycology, (4th edition), John Wiley Sons, New York, 1996

A college-level content on a universe of fungi, orderly according to a beliefs of classification.

Margulis, Lynn, Karlene Schwartz, Five Kingdoms: An Illustrated Guide to a Phyla of Life on Earth (2nd edition), W. H. Freeman and Company, New York, 1988

An overview of a top levels of Taxonomy. we have used a authors’ nomenclature where available. Names, however, are constantly changing in a margin of Taxonomy, and no doubt many of these names are doubtful or have altered given 1988.

Margulis, Lynn, Diversity of Life: The Five Kingdoms, Enslow Publishers, Inc., New Jersey, 1992

Although billed as a children’s book, this book is utterly suitable for a adult amateur. Dr. Margulis strikes an glorious change between fact and abruptness in this fact-filled book.

Milani, Jean P., et. al. Biological Science: An Ecological Approach (6th edition), Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company, Iowa, 1987

A high propagandize text that devotes several chapters to Taxonomy and a farrago of life on a planet. The Appendix patrician A Catalog of Living Things illustrates a phyla as good as many classes and families within a 5 kingdoms.


[Home]
[Contents]
[Fungi]
[Plantae]
[Animalia]
[Protoctista]
[Species Index]


This site constructed and confirmed by Ari Kornfeld, email: (ari@perspective.com)
Copyright © ۱۹۹۶-۲۰۰۷ All rights reserved.

Please take a impulse to yield your feedback on this site.

Credits:
Collaboration and impulse interjection to Susan Kornfeld
Early PhotoCD scans by Alpha CD Imaging, Menlo Park, CA
Special interjection to Claire Doyle for scanning some early photos
Internet use by Pair Networks

Article source: http://www.perspective.com/nature/fungi/

پاسخ دهید

نشانی ایمیل شما منتشر نخواهد شد.

*

code