List of paradoxes

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۳ مهر ۱۳۹۴

This is a list of paradoxes, grouped thematically. The organisation is approximate, as paradoxes competence fit into some-more than one category. Because of varying definitions of a tenure paradox, some of a following are not counsel to be paradoxes by everyone. This list collects usually scenarios that have been called a antithesis by during slightest one source and have their possess article.

Although counsel paradoxes, some of these are shaped on fallacious reasoning, or incomplete/faulty analysis. Informally, a tenure is mostly used to news a counter-intuitive result.

Logic[edit]

  • Barbershop paradox The conjecture that if one of dual coexisting assumptions leads to a contradiction, a other arrogance is also disproved leads to enigmatic consequences. Not to be confused with a Barber paradox.
  • What a Tortoise Said to Achilles “Whatever Logic is good adequate to tell me is value writing down…”, also famous as Carroll’s paradox, not to be confused with a earthy antithesis of a same name.
  • Catch-22 A conditions in that someone is in need of something that can usually be had by not being in need of it.
  • Drinker paradox In any pub there is a patron of whom it is loyal to say: if that patron drinks, everybody in a pub drinks.
  • Paradox of entailment Inconsistent premises always make an justification valid.
  • Lottery paradox If there is one winning sheet in a immeasurable lottery, it is reasonable to trust of any sold lottery sheet that it is not a winning ticket, nonetheless it is not reasonable to trust that no lottery sheet will win.
  • Raven paradox (or Hempel’s Ravens): Observing a immature apple increases a odds of all ravens being black.
  • Ross’ paradox Disjunction introduction poses a problem for indispensable deduction by clearly needing capricious imperatives to be inferred.
  • Unexpected unresolved paradox The day of a unresolved will be a surprise, so it can't start during all, so it will be a surprise. The surprise examination and Bottle Imp antithesis use matching logic.

Self-reference[edit]

These paradoxes have in common a counterbalance outset from presumably from self-reference or from spin reference, in that several statements impute to any other in a approach that following some of a references leads behind to a starting point.

  • Barber paradox A coiffeur (who is a man) shaves all and usually those organisation who do not trim themselves. Does he trim himself? (Russell’s popularization of his set theoretic paradox.)
  • Bhartrhari’s paradox The topic that there are some things that are unnameable conflicts with a idea that something is named by job it unnameable.
  • Berry paradox The word “the initial series not nameable in underneath 10 words” appears to name it in 9 words.
  • Crocodile dilemma If a crocodile steals a child and promises a lapse if a father can rightly speculation accurately what a crocodile will do, how should a crocodile respond in a box that a father rightly guesses that a child will not be returned?
  • Paradox of a Court A law tyro agrees to compensate his clergyman after (and usually after) winning his initial case. The clergyman afterwards sues a tyro (who has not nonetheless won a case) for payment.
  • Curry’s paradox “If this judgment is true, afterwards Santa Claus exists.”
  • Epimenides paradox A Cretan says: “All Cretans are liars”. This antithesis works in especially a same approach as a Liar paradox.
  • Grelling–Nelson paradox Is a word “heterological”, definition “not germane to itself”, a heterological word? (Another tighten relations of Russell’s paradox.)
  • Kleene–Rosser paradox By formulating an homogeneous to Richard’s paradox, untyped lambda calculus is shown to be inconsistent.
  • Liar paradox “This judgment is false.” This is a authorized self-referential paradox. Also “Is a answer to this doubt no?”, and “I’m lying.”
    • Card paradox “The subsequent matter is true. The prior matter is false.” A several of a liar antithesis that does not use self-reference.
    • Pinocchio paradox What would start if Pinocchio pronounced “My nose will be growing”?[1]
    • Quine’s paradox “‘Yields a fabrication when appended to a possess quotation’ yields a fabrication when appended to a possess quotation.” Shows that a judgment can be enigmatic even if it is not self-referring and does not use demonstratives or indexicals.
    • Yablo’s paradox An systematic gigantic routine of sentences, any of that says that all following sentences are false. While assembled to equivocate self-reference, there is no settle presumably it relies on self-reference or not.
  • Opposite Day “It is conflicting day today.” Therefore it is not conflicting day, nonetheless if we contend it is a normal day it would be counsel a normal day.
  • Petronius’ paradox “Moderation in all things, including moderation” (unsourced preference infrequently attributed to Petronius).
  • Richard’s paradox We seem to be means to use elementary English to conclude a decimal enlargement in a approach that is self-contradictory.
  • Russell’s paradox Does a set of all those sets that do not enclose themselves enclose itself?
  • Socratic paradox “I know that we know 0 during all.”

Vagueness[edit]

  • Ship of Theseus (a.k.a. George Washington’s mattock or Grandfather’s aged axe): It seems like we can reinstate any member of a ship, and it is still a same ship. So we can reinstate them all, one during a time, and it is still a same ship. However, we can afterwards take all a strange pieces, and arrange them into a ship. That, too, is a same boat we began with.
  • Sorites paradox (also famous as a antithesis of a heap): If we mislay a singular pellet of silt from a heap, we still have a heap. Keep stealing singular grains, and a store will disappear. Can a singular pellet of silt make a disproportion between store and non-heap?

Mathematics[edit]

  • All horses are a same color A explanation by initiation that all horses have a same color.
  • Cramer’s paradox The series of points of intersection of dual higher-order curves can be incomparable than a series of capricious points indispensable to conclude one such curve.
  • Elevator paradox Elevators can seem to be mostly going in one direction, as if they were being done in a core of a building and being messy on a roof and basement.
  • Interesting series paradox The initial series that can be counsel “dull” rather than “interesting” becomes engaging since of that fact.
  • Nontransitive dice You can have 3 dice, called A, B, and C, such that A is approaching to win in a hurl opposite B, B is approaching to win in a hurl opposite C, and C is approaching to win in a hurl opposite A.
  • Potato paradox If we let potatoes consisting of 99% H2O dry so that they are 98% water, they mislay 50% of their weight.
  • Russell’s paradox Does a set of all those sets that do not enclose themselves enclose itself?

Statistics[edit]

  • Abelson’s paradox Effect stretch competence not be demonstrative of unsentimental meaning.
  • Accuracy paradox Predictive models with a given spin of exactness competence have incomparable predictive appetite than models with aloft accuracy.
  • Benford’s law Numbers starting with revoke digits seem disproportionately mostly in clearly pointless information sets.
  • Berkson’s paradox A complicating means outset in statistical tests of proportions.
  • Freedman’s paradox Describes a problem in indication preference where predictor variables with no exegetic appetite can seem artificially important.
  • Friendship paradox For roughly everyone, their friends have some-more friends than they do.
  • Inspection paradox Why one will wait longer for a train than one should.
  • Lindley’s paradox Tiny errors in a nothing supposition are magnified when immeasurable information sets are analyzed, heading to fake nonetheless rarely statistically poignant results.
  • Low birth weight paradox Low birth weight and mothers who fume minister to a aloft mankind rate. Babies of smokers have revoke normal birth weight, nonetheless low birth weight babies innate to smokers have a revoke mankind rate than other low birth weight babies. This is a special box of Simpson’s paradox.
  • Simpson’s paradox, or a Yule–Simpson effect: A trend that appears in opposite groups of information disappears when these groups are combined, and a retreat trend appears for a sum data.
  • Will Rogers phenomenon The mathematical judgment of an average, presumably tangible as a meant or median, leads to apparently enigmatic results—for example, it is probable that relocating an opening from an thesaurus to a compendium would boost a normal opening length on both books.

Probability[edit]

  • Bertrand’s box paradox A antithesis of redeeming luck closely compared to a Boy or Girl paradox.
  • Bertrand’s paradox Different common-sense definitions of randomness give utterly opposite results.
  • Birthday paradox What is a luck that dual people in a room have a same birthday?
  • Borel’s paradox Conditional luck firmness functions are not immutable underneath coordinate transformations.
  • Boy or Girl paradox A two-child family has during slightest one boy. What is a luck that it has a girl?
  • False certain paradox A exam that is accurate a immeasurable infancy of a time could uncover we have a disease, nonetheless a luck that we indeed have it could still be tiny.
  • Grice’s paradox Shows that a accurate definition of statements involving conditionals and probabilities is some-more formidable than competence be apparent on infrequent examination.
  • Monty Hall problem An unintuitive effect of redeeming probability.
  • Necktie paradox A peril between dual people seems to foster them both. Very matching in hint to a Two-envelope paradox.
  • Proebsting’s paradox The Kelly settlement is an mostly optimal plan for maximizing distinction in a prolonged run. Proebsting’s antithesis apparently shows that a Kelly settlement can lead to ruin.
  • Sleeping Beauty problem A luck problem that can be rightly answered as one half or one third depending on how a doubt is approached.
  • Three cards problem When pulling a pointless card, how do we establish a tone of a underside?
  • Three Prisoners problem A transformation of a Monty Hall problem.
  • Two-envelope paradox You are given dual uncelebrated envelopes, any of that contains a certain sum of money. One pouch contains twice as many as a other. You competence collect one pouch and keep whatever volume it contains. You collect one pouch during pointless nonetheless before we open it we are given a luck to take a other pouch instead.

Infinity and infinitesimals[edit]

  • Burali-Forti paradox If a ordinal numbers shaped a set, it would be an ordinal series that is smaller than itself.
  • Cantor’s paradox The set of all sets would have a possess appetite set as a subset, therefore a cardinality would be during slightest as good as that of a appetite set. But Cantor’s postulate proves that appetite sets are particularly incomparable than a sets they are assembled from. Consequently, a set of all sets would enclose a subset incomparable than itself.
  • Galileo’s paradox Though many numbers are not squares, there are no some-more numbers than squares. (See also Cantor’s erratic argument)
  • Hilbert’s antithesis of a Grand Hotel If a hotel with forever many bedrooms is full, it can still take in some-more guests.
  • Russell’s paradox Does a set of all those sets that do not enclose themselves enclose itself?
  • Skolem’s paradox Countably gigantic models of set speculation enclose uncountably gigantic sets.
  • Zeno’s paradoxes “You will never strech infer B from infer A as we contingency always get half-way there, and half of a half, and half of that half, and so on.” (This is also a earthy paradox.)
  • Supertasks competence outcome in paradoxes such as
  • Benardete’s paradox Apparently, a masculine can be “forced to stay where he is by a little emptied intentions of a gods”.
  • Ross–Littlewood paradox After otherwise adding and stealing balls to a vase forever often, how many balls remain?
  • Thomson’s lamp After flicking a flare on and off forever often, is it on or off?

Geometry and topology[edit]

  • Banach–Tarski paradox Cut a spin into a calculable series of pieces, re-assemble a pieces to get dual balls, both of equal stretch to a first. The von Neumann antithesis is a two-dimensional analogue.
    • Paradoxical set A set that can be partitioned into dual sets, any of that is homogeneous to a original.
  • Coastline paradox a fringe of a landmass is in ubiquitous ill-defined.
  • Coin series paradox a silver rotating along a corner of an matching silver will make a full series after traversing usually half of a still coin’s circumference.
  • Gabriel’s Horn or Torricelli’s trumpet: A elementary intent with calculable volume nonetheless gigantic aspect area. Also, a Mandelbrot set and several other fractals are lonesome by a calculable area, nonetheless have an gigantic fringe (in fact, there are no dual graphic points on a range of a Mandelbrot set that can be reached from one another by relocating a calculable stretch along that boundary, that also implies that in a clarity we go no serve if we ride “the wrong way” around a set to strech a circuitously point). This can be represented by a Klein bottle.
  • Hausdorff paradox There exists a countable subset C of a globe S such that SC is equidecomposable with dual copies of itself.
  • Missing retard puzzle Two similar-looking sum seem to have opposite areas while built from a same pieces.
  • Nikodym set A set contained in and with a same Lebesgue bulk as a territory square, nonetheless for any one of a points there is a true line intersecting a Nikodym set usually in that point.
  • Sphere eversion A globe can, topologically, be incited inside out.

Decision theory[edit]

  • Abilene paradox People can make decisions shaped not on what they indeed wish to do, nonetheless on what they consider that other people wish to do, with a outcome that everybody decides to do something that nobody unequivocally wants to do, nonetheless usually what they suspicion that everybody else wanted to do.
  • Apportionment paradox Some systems of apportioning illustration can have unintuitive formula due to rounding
    • Alabama paradox Increasing a sum series of seats competence cringe one block’s seats.
    • New states paradox Adding a new state or voting retard competence boost a series of votes of another.
    • Population paradox A fast-growing state can mislay votes to a slow-growing state.
  • Arrow’s paradox Given some-more than dual choices, no complement can have all a attributes of an ideal voting complement during once.
  • Buridan’s ass How can a receptive choice be done between dual outcomes of equal value?
  • Chainstore paradox Even those who know softened play a supposed sequence store diversion in an undiscerning manner.
  • Decision-making paradox Selecting a best decision-making routine is a preference problem in itself.
  • Fenno’s paradox The faith that people generally debate of a United States Congress as a whole, nonetheless support a Congressman from their possess Congressional district.
  • Fredkin’s paradox The some-more matching dual choices are, a some-more time a decision-making representative spends on deciding.
  • Green paradox Policies intending to revoke destiny CO2 emissions competence lead to increasing emissions in a present.
  • Hedgehog’s dilemma or Lover’s paradox Despite goodwill, tellurian cognisance can't start nonetheless estimable mutual harm.
  • Inventor’s paradox It is easier to solve a some-more ubiquitous problem that covers a specifics of a sought-after solution.
  • Kavka’s venom puzzle Can one intend to splash a non-deadly toxin, if a goal is a usually thing indispensable to get a reward?
  • Morton’s fork Choosing between unpalatable alternatives.
  • Navigation paradox Increased maritime pointing competence outcome in increasing collision risk.
  • Newcomb’s paradox How do we play a diversion opposite an omniscient opponent?
  • Paradox of tolerance Should one endure dogmatism if dogmatism would destroy a luck of tolerance?
  • Paradox of voting Also famous as a Downs paradox. For a rational, self-interested voter a costs of voting will routinely surpass a approaching benefits, so since do people keep voting?
  • Parrondo’s paradox It is probable to play dual losing games alternately to eventually win.
  • Prevention paradox For one chairman to benefit, many people have to change their duty — even nonetheless they accept no benefit, or even suffer, from a change.
  • Prisoner’s dilemma Two people competence not concur even if it is in both their best interests to do so.
  • Relevance paradox Sometimes applicable information is not sought out since a aptitude usually becomes pure after a information is available.
  • Voting paradox Also famous as Condorcet’s antithesis and antithesis of voting. A organisation of alone receptive people competence have preferences that are undiscerning in a aggregate.
  • Willpower paradox Those who kept their minds open were some-more goal-directed and some-more encouraged than those who announced their design to themselves.

Physics[edit]

Play media

  • Cool tropics paradox A counterbalance between modelled estimates of pleasant temperatures during warm, ice-free durations of a Cretaceous and Eocene, and a revoke temperatures that proxies advise were present.
  • Irresistible force paradox What would start if an unstoppable force strike an dynamic object?

Astrophysics[edit]

  • Algol paradox In some binaries a partners seem to have opposite ages, even nonetheless they are suspicion to have shaped during a same time.
  • Faint immature Sun paradox The counterbalance between existence of glass H2O early in a Earth’s story and a expectancy that a outlay of a immature Sun would have been deficient to warp ice on Earth.
  • GZK paradox Extreme-energy vast rays have been celebrated that seem to violate a Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin limit, that is a effect of special relativity.
  • Paradox of youth Compared to theory, there is an overabundance of immature stars tighten to a supermassive black hole in a Galactic Center.

Classical mechanics[edit]

  • Archer’s paradox An archer must, in sequence to strike his target, not aim directly during it, nonetheless somewhat to a side.
  • Hydrostatic paradox or Archimedes’ paradox A vast battleship can boyant in a few litres of water.
  • Aristotle’s circle paradox Rolling assimilated concentric wheels seem to snippet a same stretch with their circumferences, even nonetheless a circumferences are different.
  • Carroll’s paradox The bony transformation of a hang should be zero, nonetheless is not.
  • D’Alembert’s paradox Flow of an inviscid liquid produces no net force on a plain body.
  • Denny’s paradox Surface-dwelling arthropods (such as a H2O strider) should not be means to propel themselves horizontally.
  • Elevator paradox Even nonetheless hydrometers are used to bulk liquid density, a hydrometer will not infer changes of liquid firmness caused by changing windy pressure.
  • Feynman sprinkler Which approach does a sprinkler stagger when submerged in a tank and done to siphon in a surrounding fluid?
  • Painlevé paradox Rigid-body dynamics with hit and attrition is inconsistent.
  • Tea root paradox When a crater of tea is stirred, a leaves arrange in a center, even nonetheless centrifugal force pushes them outward.
  • Upstream contamination When a liquid is poured from a aloft enclosure onto a revoke one, particles can mount adult a forward water.

Cosmology[edit]

  • Bentley’s paradox In a Newtonian universe, inclination should lift all matter into a singular point.
  • Boltzmann brain If a star we observe resulted from a pointless thermodynamic fluctuation, it would be vastly some-more approaching to be a elementary one than a formidable one we observe. The simplest box would be usually a mind floating in vacuum, carrying a thoughts and sensations we have.
  • Fermi paradox If there are, as several arguments suggest, many other sentient category in a Universe, afterwards where are they? Shouldn’t their participation be obvious?
  • Heat genocide paradox If a star was forever old, it would be in thermodynamical equilibrium, that contradicts what we observe.
  • Olbers’ paradox Why is a night sky dim if there is an forever of stars, covering any partial of a astronomical sphere?

Electromagnetism[edit]

  • Faraday paradox An apparent defilement of Faraday’s law of electromagnetic induction.

Quantum mechanics[edit]

  • Aharonov–Bohm effect a charged proton is shabby by an electromagnetic margin even nonetheless it has no inner hit with that field
  • Bell’s theorem Why do totalled quantum particles not infer mathematical luck theory?
  • Double-slit experiment Matter and appetite can act as a call or as a proton depending on a experiment.
  • Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen paradox Can distant divided events change any other in quantum mechanics?
  • Extinction paradox In a little wavelength limit, a sum pinch cranky territory of an inflexible globe is twice a geometrical cross-sectional area (which is a value performed in exemplary mechanics).[2]
  • Hardy’s paradox How can we make inferences about past events that we haven’t celebrated while during a same time acknowledge that a act of watching it affects a existence we are concluding to?
  • Klein paradox When a intensity of a intensity separator becomes matching to a mass of a impinging particle, it becomes transparent.
  • Mott problem Spherically symmetric call functions, when observed, furnish linear proton tracks.
  • Quantum LC circuit paradox Energies stored on capacitance and inductance are not equal to a belligerent state appetite of a quantum oscillator.[citation needed]
  • Quantum pseudo-telepathy Two players who can not promulgate accomplish tasks that clearly need approach contact.
  • Quantum Zeno effect (Turing paradox) echoing a Zeno paradox, a quantum proton that is invariably celebrated can't change a state
  • Schrödinger’s cat paradox According to a Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics, a cat could be concurrently alive and dead, as prolonged as we don’t look.
  • Uncertainty principle Attempts to establish position contingency disquiet momentum, and clamp versa.

Relativity[edit]

  • Bell’s spaceship paradox concerning relativity.
  • Black hole information paradox Black holes violate a ordinarily insincere element of scholarship — that information can't be destroyed.
  • Ehrenfest paradox On a kinematics of a firm rotating disk.
  • Ladder paradox A exemplary relativity problem.
  • Mocanu’s quickness combination paradox a antithesis in special relativity.
  • Supplee’s paradox a irresolution of a relativistic intent (such as a bullet) appears to change when a anxiety support is altered from one in that a bullet is during rest to one in that a liquid is during rest.
  • Trouton-Noble or Right-angle push paradox Does a torque arise in immobile systems when changing frames?
  • Twin paradox The speculation of relativity predicts that a chairman creation a spin outing will lapse younger than his or her matching twin who stayed during home.

Thermodynamics[edit]

  • Gibbs paradox In an ideal gas, is entropy an endless variable?
  • Loschmidt’s paradox Why is there an unavoidable boost in entropy when a laws of production are immutable underneath time reversal? The time annulment balance of earthy laws appears to protest a second law of thermodynamics.
  • Maxwell’s demon The second law of thermodynamics seems to be disregarded by a deftly operated trapdoor.[3]
  • Mpemba effect Hot H2O can, underneath certain conditions, solidify faster than cold water, even nonetheless it contingency pass a revoke heat on a approach to freezing.

Biology[edit]

  • Antarctic paradox In some areas of a oceans, phytoplankton concentrations are low notwithstanding there apparently being sufficient nutrients.
  • C-value enigma Genome stretch does not relate with organismal complexity. For example, some unicellular organisms have genomes many incomparable than that of humans.
  • Cole’s paradox Even a little richness advantage of one additional brood would preference a enlargement of semelparity.
  • Gray’s paradox Despite their comparatively little flesh mass, dolphins can float during high speeds and obtain immeasurable accelerations.
  • Lek paradox Persistent womanlike choice for sold masculine trait values should erode genetic opposite in masculine traits and thereby mislay a advantages of choice, nonetheless choice persists.
  • Lombard’s paradox When rising to mount from a sitting or squatting position, both a hamstrings and quadriceps agreement during a same time, notwithstanding their being antagonists to any other.
  • Paradox of enrichment Increasing a food accessible to an ecosystem competence lead to instability, and even to extinction.
  • Paradox of a pesticides Applying insecticide to a harassment competence boost a pest’s abundance.
  • Paradox of a plankton Why are there so many opposite category of phytoplankton, even nonetheless foe for a same resources tends to revoke a series of species?
  • Sherman paradox An supernatural settlement of estate in a frail X syndrome.
  • Temporal antithesis (paleontology) When did a ancestors of birds live?

Health and nutrition[edit]

  • French paradox The regard that a French humour a comparatively low occurrence of coronary heart disease, notwithstanding carrying a diet comparatively abounding in jam-packed fats, that are insincere to be a heading dietary means of such disease.
  • Glucose paradox The immeasurable volume of glycogen in a liver can't be explained by a little glucose absorption.
  • Hispanic paradox The anticipating that Hispanics in a U.S. tend to have almost softened health than a normal race in annoy of what their sum socio-economic indicators predict.
  • Israeli paradox The regard that Israelis humour a comparatively high occurrence of coronary heart disease, notwithstanding carrying a diet really low in jam-packed fats, that are insincere to be a heading dietary means of such disease.
  • Meditation paradox The width of heart rate oscillations during imagining was significantly incomparable than in a pre-meditation control state and also in 3 non-meditation control groups[4]
  • Mexican paradox Mexican children tend to have aloft birth weights than can be approaching from their socio-economic status.
  • Obesity participation paradox Although a disastrous health consequences of plumpness in a ubiquitous race are good upheld by a accessible evidence, health outcomes in certain subgroups seem to be softened during an increasing BMI.
  • Peto’s paradox Humans get cancer with high frequency, while incomparable mammals, like whales, do not. If cancer is radically a disastrous outcome lottery during a dungeon level, and incomparable organisms have some-more cells, and so some-more potentially carcenogenic dungeon divisions, one would design incomparable organisms to be some-more compliant to cancer.
  • Pulsus paradoxus A pulsus paradoxus is a enigmatic diminution in systolic blood vigour during inspiration. It can infer certain medical conditions in that there is reduced venous lapse of blood to a heart, such as cardiac tamponade or binding pericarditis. Also famous as a Pulse Paradox.[5]

Chemistry[edit]

  • Faraday antithesis (electrochemistry) Diluted nitric poison will erode steel, while clever nitric poison doesn’t.
  • Levinthal paradox The length of time that it takes for a protein sequence to find a folded state is many orders of bulk shorter than it would be if it openly searched all probable configurations.
  • SAR paradox Exceptions to a element that a little change in a proton causes a little change in a chemical poise are frequently profound.

Time[edit]

  • Bootstrap paradox Can a time traveler send himself information with no outward source?
  • Polchinski’s paradox A billiard spin can be thrown into a wormhole in such a approach that it would emerge in a past and hit a incoming past self divided from a wormhole entrance, formulating a several of a grandfather paradox.
  • Predestination paradox A masculine travels behind in time to learn a means of a famous fire. While in a building where a glow started, he incidentally knocks over a kerosene lantern and causes a fire, a same glow that would enthuse him, years later, to ride behind in time. The bootstrap antithesis is closely tied to this, in which, as a outcome of time travel, information or objects seem to have no beginning.
  • Temporal paradox What happens when a time traveler does things in a past that forestall him from doing them in a initial place?
  • Grandfather paradox You ride behind in time and kill your grandfather before he conceives one of your parents, that precludes your possess source and, therefore, we couldn’t go behind in time and kill your grandfather.
  • Hitler’s murder paradox You ride behind in time and kill a famous chairman in story before they spin famous; nonetheless if a chairman had never been famous afterwards he could not have been targeted as a famous person.

Linguistics and synthetic intelligence[edit]

  • Bracketing paradox Is a “historical linguist” a linguist who is historical, or someone who studies “historical linguistics”?
  • Code-talker paradox How can a denunciation both capacitate communication and retard communication?
  • Moravec’s paradox Logical suspicion is tough for humans and easy for computers, nonetheless picking a screw from a box of screws is an unsolved problem.
  • Movement paradox In transformational linguistics, there are pairs of sentences in that a judgment nonetheless transformation is ungrammatical while a judgment with transformation is not.
  • Sayre’s paradox In programmed scratch recognition, a cursively combined word can't be famous nonetheless being segmented and can't be segmented nonetheless being recognized.

Philosophy[edit]

  • Paradox of analysis It seems that no unpractical research can accommodate a mandate both of exactness and of informativeness.
  • Buridan’s bridge Will Plato chuck Socrates into a H2O or not?
  • Paradox of fiction How can people knowledge clever emotions from quite illusory things?
  • Fitch’s paradox If all truths are knowable, afterwards all truths contingency in fact be known.
  • Paradox of giveaway will If God knew how we will endorse when he combined us, how can there be giveaway will?
  • Goodman’s paradox Why can initiation be used to endorse that things are “green”, nonetheless not to endorse that things are “grue”?
  • Paradox of hedonism When one pursues complacency itself, one is miserable; but, when one pursues something else, one achieves happiness.
  • Hutton’s Paradox If seeking oneself “Am we dreaming?” in a dream proves that one is, what does it infer in waking life?
  • Liberal paradox “Minimal Liberty” is exclusive with Pareto optimality.
  • Meno’s paradox (Learner’s paradox) A masculine can't hunt presumably for what he knows or for what he does not know.
  • Mere serve paradox (Parfit’s paradox) Is a immeasurable race vital a hardly sufferable life softened than a small, happy population?
  • Moore’s paradox “It’s raining, nonetheless we don’t trust that it is.”
  • Newcomb’s paradox A enigmatic diversion between dual players, one of whom can envision a actions of a other.
  • Paradox of nihilism Several graphic paradoxes share this name.
  • Omnipotence paradox Can an invincible being emanate a stone too complicated for itself to lift?
  • Preface paradox The author of a book competence be fit in desiring that all his statements in a book are correct, during a same time desiring that during slightest one of them is incorrect.
  • Problem of evil (Epicurean paradox) The existence of immorality seems to be exclusive with a existence of an omnipotent, omniscient, and implicitly ideal God.
  • Rule-following paradox Even nonetheless manners are dictated to establish actions, “no march of movement could be dynamic by a rule, since any march of movement can be done out to settle with a rule”.
  • When a white equine is not a horse White horses are not horses since white and horse impute to opposite things.
  • Zeno’s paradoxes “You will never strech infer B from infer A as we contingency always get half-way there, and half of a half, and half of that half, and so on …” (This is also a antithesis of a infinite)

Mysticism[edit]

  • Tzimtzum In Kabbalah, how to determine self-awareness of calculable Creation with Infinite Divine source, as an emanated causal sequence would clearly stop existence. Luria’s initial withdrawal of God in Hasidic panentheism involves coexisting illusionism of Creation (Upper Unity) and self-aware existence (Lower Unity), God encompassing judicious opposites.

Economics[edit]

One category of paradoxes in economics are a paradoxes of competition, in that duty that advantages a sole actor would leave everybody worse off if everybody did a same. These paradoxes are personal into circuit, exemplary and Marx paradoxes.

  • Allais paradox A change in a probable outcome that is common by opposite alternatives affects people’s choices among those alternatives, in counterbalance with approaching application theory.
  • The Antitrust Paradox[dubious ]: A book arguing that antitrust coercion artificially lifted prices by safeguarding emasculate competitors from competition.
  • Arrow information paradox To sell information we need to give it divided before a sale.
  • Bertrand paradox Two players reaching a state of Nash balance both find themselves with no profits.
  • Braess’ paradox Adding additional ability to a network can revoke altogether performance.
  • Deaton paradox Consumption varies surprisingly uniformly notwithstanding pointy variations in income.
  • Demographic-economic paradox nations or subpopulations with aloft GDP per capita are celebrated to have fewer children, even nonetheless a richer race can support some-more children.
  • Downs–Thomson paradox Increasing highway ability during a responsibility of investments in open ride can make altogether overload on a highway worse.
  • Easterlin paradox For countries with income sufficient to accommodate simple needs, a reported spin of complacency does not relate with inhabitant income per person.
  • Edgeworth paradox With ability constraints, there competence not be an equilibrium.
  • Ellsberg paradox People vaunt ambiguity hatred (as graphic from risk aversion), in counterbalance with approaching application theory.
  • European paradox The viewed disaster of European countries to interpret systematic advances into commercial innovations.
  • Gibson’s paradox Why were seductiveness rates and prices correlated?
  • Giffen paradox Increasing a cost of bread creates bad people eat some-more of it.
  • Icarus paradox Some businesses move about their possess rain by their possess successes.
  • Jevons paradox Increases in potency lead to even incomparable increases in demand.
  • Leontief paradox Some countries trade labor-intensive line and import capital-intensive commodities, in counterbalance with a Heckscher–Ohlin theorem.
  • Lucas paradox Capital is not issuing from grown countries to building countries notwithstanding a fact that building countries have revoke levels of collateral per worker, and therefore aloft earnings to capital.
  • Mandeville’s paradox Actions that competence be infamous to people competence advantage multitude as a whole.
  • Mayfield’s paradox Keeping everybody out of an information complement is impossible, nonetheless so is removing everybody in.
  • Metzler paradox The deception of a tariff on imports competence revoke a relations inner cost of that good.
  • Paradox of prosperity Why do generations that significantly urge a mercantile meridian seem to generally back a inheritor era that consumes rather than produces?
  • Paradox of thrift If everybody saves some-more income during times of recession, afterwards sum approach will tumble and will in spin revoke sum assets in a population.
  • Paradox of toil If everybody tries to work during times of recession, revoke salary will revoke prices, heading to some-more deflationary expectations, heading to serve thrift, shortening approach and thereby shortening employment.
  • Paradox of value, also famous as diamond-water paradox: Water is some-more useful than diamonds, nonetheless is a lot cheaper.
  • Productivity paradox (also famous as Solow mechanism paradox): Worker capability competence go down, notwithstanding technological improvements.
  • Scitovsky paradox Using a Kaldor–Hicks criterion, an allocation A competence be some-more fit than allocation B, while during a same time B is some-more fit than A.
  • Service liberation paradox Successfully regulating a problem with a poor product competence lead to aloft consumer compensation than in a box where no problem occurred during all.
  • St. Petersburg paradox People will usually offer a medium price for a prerogative of gigantic approaching value.
  • Paradox of Plenty The Paradox of Plenty (resource curse) refers to a antithesis that countries and regions with an contentment of healthy resources, privately point-source non-renewable resources like minerals and fuels, tend to have reduction mercantile enlargement and worse growth outcomes than countries with fewer healthy resources.
  • Throw divided paradox A merchant can benefit by throwing divided some of his/her initial endowment.
  • Tullock paradox Bribing politicians costs reduction than one would expect, deliberation how many distinction it can yield.

Perception[edit]

  • Tritone paradox An listened apparition in that a sequentially played span of Shepard tones is listened as forward by some people and as forward by others.
  • Blub paradox Cognitive close of some gifted programmers that prevents them from scrupulously evaluating a peculiarity of programming languages that they do not know.[6]
  • Optical illusion A visible apparition that suggests inconsistency, such as an unfit brick or a vertical-horizontal illusion, where a dual lines are accurately a same length nonetheless seem to be of opposite lengths.

Politics[edit]

  • Stability–instability paradox When dual countries any have chief weapons, a luck of a approach fight between them severely decreases, nonetheless a luck of teenager or surreptitious conflicts between them increases.

Psychology and sociology[edit]

  • Gender paradox Women heed some-more closely than organisation to sociolinguistics norms that are sincerely prescribed, nonetheless heed reduction than organisation when they are not.
  • Ironic routine theory Ironic estimate is a psychological routine whereby an individual’s counsel attempts to conceal or equivocate certain thoughts (thought suppression) renders those thoughts some-more persistent.
  • Meat paradox People caring about animals, nonetheless welcome diets that engage harming them.
  • Moral paradox A conditions in that dignified imperatives strife nonetheless pure resolution.
  • Outcomes paradox Schizophrenia patients in building countries seem to transport softened than their Western counterparts.[7]
  • Region-beta paradox People can infrequently redeem some-more fast from some-more heated emotions or pain than from reduction pathetic experiences.
  • Self-absorption paradox The paradoxical organisation whereby aloft levels of self-awareness are concurrently compared with aloft levels of psychological trouble and with psychological well-being.[8]
  • Stapp’s ironical paradox “The judgment aptitude for uselessness creates any tellurian fulfilment an implausible miracle.”
  • Status paradox Several paradoxes engage a judgment of medical or amicable status.
  • Stockdale paradox “You contingency never upset faith that we will overcome in a end—which we can never means to lose—with a fortify to confront a many heartless contribution of your stream reality, whatever they competence be.”
  • The Paradox of Anti-Semitism A book arguing that a miss of outmost persecutions and antagonisms formula in a retraction of Jewish identity, a speculation that resonates in works of Dershowitz and Sartre.

Miscellaneous[edit]

  • Absence paradox No one is ever “here”.
  • Ant on a rubber rope An termite crawling on a rubber wire can strech a finish even when a wire stretches many faster than a termite can crawl.
  • Bonini’s paradox Models or simulations that explain a workings of formidable systems are clearly unfit to construct. As a indication of a formidable complement becomes some-more complete, it becomes reduction understandable, for it to be some-more distinct it contingency be reduction finish and therefore reduction accurate. When a indication becomes accurate, it is usually as formidable to know as a real-world processes it represents.
  • Buttered cat paradox Humorous instance of a antithesis from contradicting proverbs.
  • Intentionally vacant page Many papers enclose pages on that a content “This page is intentionally left blank” is printed, thereby creation a page not blank.
  • Observer’s paradox The outcome of an eventuality or examination is shabby by a participation of a observer.

See also[edit]

Logic portal

  • Auto-antonym A word that is encoded with hostile meanings.
  • Absurdity
  • Excusable negligence If a duty is excusable, it is not negligence.
  • Gödel’s incompleteness theorems and Tarski’s undefinability theorem
  • Ignore all rules To conform this rule, it is required to omit it.
  • Impossible object A form of visual illusion.
  • Invalid proof An apparently scold mathematical source that leads to an apparent contradiction.
  • Logical fallacy A myth ensuing from improper explanation in argumentation.
  • Paradox gun A gun that has characteristics of both (smoothbore) shotguns and rifles.
  • Paradoxical laughter Inappropriate laughter, mostly famous as such by a shouting person.
  • Performative contradiction Some statements protest a conditions that concede them to be stated.
  • Proof that 0.999… equals 1
  • Puzzle
  • Self-refuting idea
  • Theories of humor Incongruity speculation and a Ridiculous.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Eldridge-Smith, Peter; Eldridge-Smith, Veronique (13 Jan 2010). “The Pinocchio paradox”. Analysis 70 (2): 212–۲۱۵٫ doi:10.1093/analys/anp173. ISSN ۱۴۶۷-۸۲۸۴. Retrieved 23 July 2010. 
    As of 2010[update], an picture of Pinocchio with a debate burble “My nose will grow now!” has spin a teenager Internet materialisation (Google search, Google picture search). It seems approaching that this antithesis has been exclusively recognised mixed times.
  2. ^ Newton, Roger G. (2002). Scattering Theory of Waves and Particles, second edition. Dover Publications. p. ۶۸٫ ISBN ۰-۴۸۶-۴۲۵۳۵-۵٫ 
  3. ^ Carnap is quoted as observant in 1977 “… a conditions with honour to Maxwell’s paradox”, in Leff, Harvey S.; Rex, A. F., eds. (2003). Maxwell’s Demon 2: Entropy, Classical and Quantum Information, Computing (PDF). Institute of Physics. p. ۱۹٫ ISBN ۰-۷۵۰۳-۰۷۵۹-۵٫ Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-11-09. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
    On page 36, Leff and Rex also quote Goldstein and Goldstein as observant “Smoluchowski entirely resolved a antithesis of a demon in 1912” in Goldstein, Martin; Goldstein, Inge F. (1993). The Refrigerator and The Universe. Universities Press (India) Pvt. Ltd. p. ۲۲۸٫ ISBN ۹۷۸-۸۱-۷۳۷۱-۰۸۵-۸٫ OCLC ۴۷۷۲۰۶۴۱۵. Retrieved 15 March 2010. 
  4. ^ Peng, C.-K; Isaac C Henry; Joseph E Mietus; Jeffrey M Hausdorff; Gurucharan Khalsa; Herbert Benson; Ary L Goldberger (May 2004). “Heart rate dynamics during 3 forms of meditation”. International Journal of Cardiology 95 (1): 19–۲۷٫ doi:10.1016/j.ijcard.2003.02.006. PMID ۱۵۱۵۹۰۳۳. Retrieved 23 May 2012. 
  5. ^ Khasnis, A.; Lokhandwala, Y. (Jan–Mar 2002). “Clinical signs in medicine: pulsus paradoxus”. Journal of Postgraduate Medicine (Mumbai – ۴۰۰ ۰۱۲, India: 49) 48 (1): 46–۹٫ ISSN ۰۰۲۲-۳۸۵۹٫ PMID ۱۲۰۸۲۳۳۰. Retrieved 21 March 2010. The “paradox” refers to a fact that heart sounds competence be listened over a precordium when a radial beat is not felt. 
  6. ^ Hidders, J. “Expressive Power of Recursion and Aggregates in XQuery” (PDF). Retrieved 23 May 2012.  Chapter 1, Introduction.
  7. ^ Developing countries: The outcomes antithesis Nature.com
  8. ^ Trapnell, P. D., Campbell, J. D. (1999). “Private self-consciousness and a Five-Factor Model of Personality: Distinguishing musing from reflection”. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 76, 284–۳۰۴٫

Self-reference

Vagueness

Other paradoxes

Article source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Paradoxes

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