The Role of Drawing in Children’s Writing

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۳۱ خرداد ۱۳۹۵

Role of Drawing in Childrens Writing


M. Gasparian Colello
Educao USP


When sketch becomes relevant

we draw, Miss?”

carrying out investigate with a organisation of approximately150 children aged 7 to
۱۲ during Escola de Aplicao of a University of So Paulo (Colello, 1977),
we was astounded during a magnitude of such clearly bizarre ask whenever
a students were asked to do created work. we set 4 activities for each
of a 5 groups studied, trimming from a initial to a fifth category of
primary school2. The initial charge compulsory a students
to furnish a giveaway calm to deliver themselves in a approach they wished (self-portrayal
text). The second challenged them to furnish a thoroughfare subsequent from a character
or suppositious conditions (fantasy text). The third wild a pupils
to uncover what they knew about animals, a thesis that is regarded as of collective
seductiveness (informative text). Finally, they were ostensible to take records in
method to imitate a calm review out in category (retelling text)3.

a initial theatre of a above mentioned investigate (the collecting of a 623
texts), their zeal to pull seemed something simply condonable since
a aim was to analyse their growth in a prolongation of different
pieces of writing. However, a fact that half a pieces constructed contained
drawings, doodles and illustrations, whose magnitude and characteristics
sundry according to age and form of task, rose a new seductiveness in a field
of investigation.

do children insist on sketch when requested to write? What needs justify
a organisation of images with writing? What is a purpose of sketch in the
prolongation of texts and how does it rise via a training process?
What inner and outmost influences impact a opposite kinds of illustrations?

had to get absolved of determined beliefs like “children pull given they
like it” or “drawings are customarily cultured resources in a production
of created tasks”, or, still, “once a liberty of a different
forms of facsimile is sorted out and understood, drawings and written
texts are dual totally eccentric resources for children” in order
to make it probable to reduce a bargain of a charge among
images, doodles and created prolongation that interfuse a prolongation of children’s

than investigate in full all aspects of a theme, this letter aims during promoting
exploratory analyses of a building tendencies in a charge of
sketch and writing, springing from 3 simple types: drawings on their
own, drawings connected with letter and together drawings.

Drawings on their own

few examples of drawings on their own4
are visible compositions that deliberately pass a ask for written
work, customarily underneath a figure of apparently intriguing productions: if drawings
are a probable choice for a ignorant to register a fact, how can
we explain a occurrence of such productions after a poise of a written
system? Under what resources do children who are means to review and write
name sketch as a customarily approach to demonstrate their ideas?

a bulk of a work produced, a fifteen pieces of drawings on their
possess were benefaction customarily in a retelling texts, a poignant cause to
explain their reason and meaning.

to extemporaneous texts, freer to bargain with a thesis (like in a 3 other
requests), a activity of induction defines itself as a sealed proposal
to imitate someone else’s idea, being singular by a reading time or the
memory of a calm review out. Its prolongation requires a formidable competence
to bargain with several abilities and skills such as initial listening to and
bargain a text; secondly, coping with a impact of a pre-conceived
ideas that have been digested to a bigger or smaller border (curiosities,
fantasies, doubts and personal interests)5;
thirdly, selecting ideas applicable to a calm (starting from an implicit
criteria)6 and, finally, registering
a information listened in a many loyal and quickest approach possible. Since
children are not consciously wakeful of these final yet feel them with different
degrees of competence, it was not by probability that this form of charge was considered
a many perfectionist of a 4 forms of letter requested. So, it seems
reasonable to associate a exclusivity of a sketch to a degrees of
problem of a task. But from a child’s indicate of viewpoint what does resorting
to sketch meant when it is formidable to write?

exemplary Russian supposition proposes that, when confronting a some-more formidable task,
a hunt for easier kinds of recording means a going behind in a development
already achieved.

a prototype of writing, Vygotsky (1988) regards sketch as a recording
means which, due to a epitome and compulsory aspects, gives birth to
a recording of debate in a prolonged evolutionary process. When a simple phase
of blending design and intent is overcome, sketch becomes a genuine written
denunciation with a coming of a ideographicrepresentation.
Later, when a design becomes mingled with speech, drawings turn able
to epitome definition in mystic analogous units, imagining a representation
of a sound, customary of so many created systems.

deliberation sketch a rough theatre in a mastering of created language,
a author does not explain, however, a after growth or a meaning
of non-iconic traces equally connected with debate and benefaction during the
proviso that precedes training to review and write.

studies about a pre-historic proviso of writing, Luria (1988) registered
occurrences in that children’s doodles worked as reflexes of debate lengthening
themselves with it or perplexing to imitate a rhythm. Far from being understood
as a building component fundamental to writing, such manifestations are considered
by a author to be connected with a opposite forms of iconic representation,
that is, forms of footnote depending on a drawing. For him, a genesis
of writing, in a figure of doodles, develops indispensably with a appearance
of pictographic letter and from that to mystic writing, when a child
becomes means to settle capricious codes or emanate opposite doodles of
what he/ she wants to execute (somehow associated to a idea) as a means to
remember a information afterwards.

to this posture, Tolchinsky (1995) and Ferreiro (2001) indicate out that, both
from a chronological and ontogenetic indicate of view, a disproportion between
letter and sketch (process, method and use) is unequivocally precocious.
This means that, whenever regulating drawings to write, children are not mixing
both forms of record or going behind in a evolutionary method of phases,
yet simply creation use of a farrago of grave resources to paint something.
To a bigger or smaller degree, such resources are famous by children and
in opposite ways prove their needs for representation.

a culture, a particular lives, given a unequivocally immature age, with an immense
farrago of forms of recording and with a multifunctional aspects of
striking resources. Many times, a information perceived overcomes a strictly
alphabetic shapes and deciphering it is part
of an ampler routine of education connected with enlightenment and a amicable practices.
The bargain of such possibilities offering by a charge among
systems7 is, undoubtedly, a training routine that takes
place when deliberation a differentiated components that are integrated
in a opposite communication objectives. The notational ability in a complexity
evolves in a context of this diversity, together to a building of knowledge
and many times notwithstanding a school. Obsessed by a thought of training to read
and write fast and a exactness of spelling and grammar, many educators
act formed on a hierarchy of values socially established, favoring a static
training of created denunciation instead of a brilliance and width of the
possibilities voiced by a intelligent churned of resources and
systems (including letter itself).

a specific box of drawing, eccentric of a amicable value (or school
value) connected with it, one has to urge a legitimacy of a use of
illustrations (exclusively or not) as a means of painting and an alternative
in a building process. Firstly, given like any other resource, drawing
favours a confinement of a idea, operative like an critical mechanism
in ordering, classifying and memorising. Secondly because, as a possible
means of communication, it allows a subdivision between a summary and its
author, giving a final product an liberty as current as any other system
of communication (although not indispensably matched to a criteria of objectivity,
clarity and speed common to a society). Finally, because, even when accompanied
by writing, sketch can be a go-between between a ego and a genuine world,
means to settle itself as a problem space in a charge among
shapes and meanings, or in a hunt for a bearing of ends and means.

is so that, in a context of amicable practices and due to a multiple
functions of language, a particular can believe a farrago of the
observant means, a opposite ways of interpreting a same thing in defined
bounds of anxiety and mystic expression.

not supposed as a going behind process, a use of sketch as an alternative
to communication or recording can turn a legitimate and enrichingexperience
in a bargain of a linguistic complexity and a means of representation,
demanding, therefore, a rider in training practices. The ill-feeling
substantial in a charge between teachers and students – those that
even in a initial category insist on sketch – opens space to
reduction squeezing educational practices, means of recognising, in any case,
students’ potential.

regard of productions of drawings on their possess shows that, besides
initiatives customarily desirous by a thesis of a strange calm (with possible
aesthetic, fluent and even artistic qualities, yet yet functional
value given they do not minister many to a recording of ideas), many
of these pieces radically iconic can be effectively deliberate as
‘writing’, according to a eminence finished by Luria: A child can draw
good yet not correlate with her/his drawings as an auxiliary device. This
distinguishes letter from sketch and establishes a border to a full development
of a ability of reading and letter pictorially, in a strictest sense
of a word.
(1988, page 176)

eminence redefines a standing of productions in many of a cases of
sketch on a own: distant from being primary alternatives, bad from the
communicative indicate of viewpoint or wanting in abstraction, they are, in fact,
drawings to say, in opposite degrees of potency and with communicative
value. This qualitative transformation customarily indicates a psychogeneticdevelopment
in a substantial stretch between suggestive to write (or write with images)
and bettering a use of letter to different
contexts and tasks. Here are some examples:

۱: finished as retelling calm by an eight-year-old boy, from a second grade.
He is already good to review and write.

Example 2: finished as retelling calm by an eight-year-old lady from
a second grade. She is good to review and write. The cinema were numbered
thereafter to make a investigate easier. The created names are not her production.

Example 3: finished as retelling calm by a seven-year-old lady from the
initial grade. She can't write.

a initial instance a author used his sketch skills as a devise to record
a strange calm even yet in an deficient way. When handing his work
in he finished it a indicate to call courtesy to a fact that his astronaut
was removing out of a rocket with his left foot, emphasising dual aspects:
a information given in a strange calm and a organic aspect of
his work. In fact, a sketch includes elements from a strange text
yet holding into comment a counterbalance of display simultaneously
a initial step and a house sealed by a astronauts already placed on
a lunar surface. This suggests that a organic aim of a recording
overcomes a fluent or artistic dimension, that characterises the
prolongation as impressive writing.

second instance resembles a initial in many aspects. Compared to a first,
a categorical disproportion is a computation of a array of pictures, the
sophistication of a peculiarity and a sequencing that follows a events
of a strange text. The startling record of ideas and fragments of the
strange calm pledge a organic value of pictographic writing, that
is, a probability of recuperating many of what was creatively review out,
obeying a following correspondence:

Picture 1: “First step on a moon” (which corresponds to
a painting of a idea)

Picture 2: “The second wanderer to step on a moon that explains
a sketch of a dual feet ” (representation of a idea)

Picture 3: “Neil Armstrong and Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, a second
to step on a moon stranded an American lead dwindle there” (textual

Picture 4: “When stepping on a lunar surface, Edwin Aldrin felt
like peeing. And so he did … inside a spacesuit ” (textual correspondence)

Picture 5: “They collected (….) samples of stones and dust”(textual

Picture 6: “The food was hydratedwith a hot
H2O pistol” (textual correspondence)

Picture 7: ‘The spaceship landed behind … in a Pacific ocean”
(textual correspondence)

Picture 8: “Neil Armstrong was interviewed by a Brazilian presenter,
Hebe Camargo”


third instance is a argumentative prolongation that shows something between
a reasonable cunning to do a linguistic textual painting and the
organic fulfilment of a aims proposed. In method to know and
analyse a resources used, one depends on a verbal reason given by
a child:
removing into a spaceship (pictorial representation) a wanderer went
over a clouds (represented by a arrow and lines) and loyal to the
moon (represented by a arrow indicating towards a moon). These outlines here
(lines next a drawing) are a people that watched (represented by the
arrows). They are done like hearts because, when a wanderer went to
a moon, he left those he desired down here.

yet it is not a unequivocally accurate painting of a strange calm (and
therefore a unequivocally bad reconstitution of a details), a instance studied
shows to be doubly singular when compared to a other dual examples. From
a textual indicate of view, a feat in a
psychogenetic scale of painting of ideas
lies on a fact that it presents information in a biased approach (the existence
of a charge of adore and regard between a wanderer and other

a linguistic indicate of viewpoint a square integrates ideographic and symbolic
letter given a child conciliates a probability of portraying objects
by incongruous images (the wanderer in a spaceship) by creation use
of mystic resources (arrows and capricious lines when representing the
spectators). Curiously enough, a use of mystic traces as a resource
to paint (considered by a Russian psychologists as a many developed
proviso and a closest to a find of writing) was finished by a tyro who,
distinct a others, could conjunction review nor write.

sum up, a qualitative transformation in a set of drawings on their own
shows a phases in a
psychogenetic expansion in that a child gradually
learns to use drawings (also) as a apparatus of denunciation in a figure of
gradually some-more epitome and fit productions. Although a use of pictures
as a means of communication is a revisit use in a multitude (becoming
an supposed denote in children’s productions), it does not tarry a school
vigour to give priority to writing, that explains given children rarely
make use of this resource. With a strenuous significance of a written
system, a calm becomes a undoubted centre of a propagandize universe.
From a biased indicate of view, a sketch that talks is customarily a transitional
theatre in a approaching training evolution, used some-more due to a obstinate
productions of a students than for a pedagogical beginning to stimulate
a improvement of children’s repertoire.

Drawings connected with writing

in a drawings on their own, a design stands for speaking, how can
one reconstruct a duty of a design when letter comes into scene?
How do both systems of painting co-exist in children’s productions?

a drawings connected with writing, a design has a purpose of giving
support to a calm both during a prolongation routine and during a composition
of a final product responding opposite final during a evolutionary
process. On one hand, there are a children’s necessities (or alternatives)
commanded by opposite degrees of competence; on a other hand, a inevitable
impact of values and practices determined inside and outward school.

Drawings connected with a routine of producing writing

distant as a routine of letter is concerned, sketch is, during first, a means
to watchful a theme, to bargain with time and a hurdles of production
by constantly relocating from difference to cinema and clamp versa. This is how
Calkins presents this relationship:

aged 5, non-stop his book during a vacant page and picked his pencil up. we asked
him, ‘What are we going to write about?’ The child stared during me as if he
was astounded during a irrationality of my question. ‘How should we know ? we haven’t
started yet!

a few seconds, Chris looked around and afterwards started drawing. He drew the
customary design of a person. His father had taught him to pull people,
so he followed a instructions carefully. In a center of a drawing,
Chris announced: ‘He’s going to be my brother. He’s fighting,’ and added
a outrageous fist to a person, as if to mount for a fight. Then, he drew a
second person, again with an huge hand. ‘We’re fighting,’ he combined and
started writing. Like many children, Chris rehearses for letter through
drawing. This does not mean, however, that his drawings fit a proposals
we, adults, routinely bond with a rehearsal. As he writes,
Chris does not conflict one subject to a other, does not envision a audience’s
answer to his story. He does not even devise that instruction a letter will
take. Just as he does when personification in a propagandize yard, he does not start
with speculations about what he is going to do, yet starts by fixation one
retard on tip of another until he announces, ‘I’m building a tower.’ Likewise,
in a letter area, he does not start meditative about a finished product,
yet by sketch a compulsory person; and, in a center of a drawing,
he announces: ‘This is going to be my brother.’

plays an critical role. The act of sketch and a painting itself
yield a ancillary intrigue inside that letter can be built (…).When
he does not have a visible memory of a word, he pronounces it slowly: ‘fight-ing.’
He isolates a sound /f/, afterwards asks: ‘How do we write /f/?’ If nobody
answers, he checks a alphabet, considers a notation and writes it down on
paper. Meanwhile, he forgets what he had designed to write. What a relief
contingency it be for him to go behind to sketch and colour his brother’s fist!
While he delicately colours a fighter’s fist,Chris remembers what he had
designed to write and, thus, goes behind to writing. He does this movement,
from sketch to letter and afterwards again to drawing, between a service and
a fortitude of one star and a plea of a other.
pages 66-67)

comment above, concordant with a letter practices of Escola de Aplicao,
expresses a charge between sketch and writing, customary of a two
initial grades. It works, alternatively, to motivate work, interpretation a courses
and transparent a pauses in a routine of writing. It creates partial of writing
not customarily as an fluent resource, yet also as a approach of behaving a task,
that is a reason given Calkins, meditative about a terse implications,
tells educators to set tasks integrating sketch and texts.

observations finished uncover that, given of drawing, many aspects of content
are selected, many created tools are deliberate adequate (or not), suitable
or inadequate. It is customarily after sketch a vampire, a dog or a flattering girl
in a prolonged dress that students cruise about what they are going to write.
But this does not meant that a sketch is ready. Most children aged 6 to
۸ start by drawing, review to letter and eventually go behind to drawing
whenever a new component is added. Drawing is also a reduction stressing approach of
traffic with doubts or watchful until being helped by a teacher.

a third and fourth grades children gradually review reduction and reduction to drawing
as a means to start and devise their created charge nonetheless it does not disappear
altogether. The design is still connected with a text, yet a diversion of
relocating from sketch to letter and vice-versa decreases during a elaboration
of a task. Gradually sketch is pushed to a finish of a calm following
an roughly protocol procession of bringing a charge set to an finish (see examples
۵ and 9).

from a fifth category onwards, as a child gradually acquires liberty in
a procedures to follow, sketch and letter tend to turn independent
stairs in a letter process, until drawing, seen as a utterly additional resource
(and utterly mostly childish), can be finally dispensed with during a process
of production.

Drawing connected with letter in a final theatre of a composition

use sketch as an constituent apparatus – to a larger or obtuse border – during
a routine of producing letter means, during a same time, that one can predict
a purpose of a design in a calm that is being produced. So, carrying in
mind a final product, it is probable to brand opposite functions (not
indispensably exclusive) attributed to a cinema that illustrate a written
text. They can complement, settle a context or illustrate a text.

they are used to component a calm (11% of a texts with drawings),
cinema like drawings on their own, do lift meaning. They are produced
by children from a initial dual grades who bond a use of letter to
a communicative intensity of a image, aiming during giving serve information
and amplifying a bargain of what has been written. The examples
that follow illustrate such productions according to opposite degrees of
cunning and change between a standards of representation:

۴: Produced as retelling calm by a seven-year-old child from a second
grade. Like in instance 2, a astronauts’ names were copied from a board
so they can't be deliberate created production.8

۵: Produced by a ten-year-old child from a fourth category as a anticipation text9′

۴ is an engaging churned of pictographic denunciation (pictures of the
theatre on a moon, a boss signing a plaque, a feet and a interview);
mystic denunciation (magazine covers to give an thought of a impact of the
fact in a media and a combination of a lunar menu) and created language
(Size 41) which, altogether, conduct to imitate many ideas from a original
text. Except for a reason about a boot, a calm works customarily like
a label, that is outshone by a images that are self-explanatory but,
in unsentimental terms, bad to reconstruct a calm objectively.

difference with images, a author of a fifth instance gives them unequivocally precise
meanings – a reason that sketch can also be a apparatus for design expression.
Besides, a calm shows a probability of substantiating a artistic interaction
among opposite kinds of denunciation in a combination in that a use of pictures
does not meant problem yet giveaway expression. Would schools be open to accept
this kind of ‘linguistic adventure’? In a context drawings,
a categorical duty of a cinema in about 36% of a texts that contained
iconic resources, a design is a means to constitute a impression or the
context so that bargain of what was created can be ensured.
often, a brilliance of a design and a black used go over a objective
bargain of a word, opening churned perspectives for interpretation
infrequently pointed and that even protest a text. This is a box of
a sixth example, a marriage theatre in that a bride and bridegroom, supposedly
over a moon, suggests opposite feelings. In impressive denunciation the
bride, distinct a groom, is apparently happy given she is profound (pictorial
language). It is his child (symbolised by a arrow indicating during a bridegroom).

Example 6: Produced as a anticipation calm by a nine-year-old lady from
a fourth grade10

a drawings connected with letter painting appears with a frequency
of 48% (58% if we cruise a churned inlet of a drawings). It is, therefore,
a accepted form in children’s productions. Closely related to a text,
a design is used to assistance visualize a calm given possibly by presenting
simple elements (characters or aspects connected with a text) or by the
exemplification of what a calm suggests. Unlike a interrelated drawings
or a contextualised ones, scholastic drawings do not meddle with
a definition of a letter to a good extent, as can be seen in a following

Example 7: Produced as an ominous calm by an eight-year-old girl
from a third grade.11

۸: Produced as ominous calm by an eight-year-old child from a fifth

comparing both illustrations, a overjoyed drawings and a ones out of
a context of instance 7 can be against to a impetus of instance 8 whose
conditions cinema an anti-ecological use that a child is trying
to indicate out. What creates this contrariety utterly suggestive is a intriguing
approach in that it appears in a corpus of a research. In all activities
and array a immobile sketch prevails in a vast scale. There are dual hypotheses
that try to explain given a good infancy of a students insists
on a overjoyed drawing, deprived of transformation and out of context.

Calkins a overjoyed sketch constructed by children is a means to freeze
a impulse or an object, holding it from a impetus of a star in order
to inspect it some-more objectively and repair it to a stroke of writing. The
star involves a upsurge of ideas and activities that is intensely discerning and
letter is so slow, so singular that a preference becomes a problem even
for clever writers. How loyal contingency this be for amateur writers. In their
drawings, children take a square of a star and solidify it for a moment;
afterwards with a sketch in front of them start to work during a difference that go
with them.
(1989, page 67)

to a writer, such productions are customary of a some-more facile theatre of
drawing. Later, when drawings of form start to occur, people turn able
to reinstate frontal overjoyed pictures, whose movements are customarily implied,
by drawn total that incorporate transformation and report to one another.

a painting of a texts collected by a investigate is conjunction adequate nor
adequate13 to analyse this evolution, we would
doubt such points of viewpoint since, in a physique of a works analysed, there
are many form drawings or drawings finished by comparison children (or both) that
keep ecstatic. So, even yet not discharging totally a variants suggested
by a author, they seem to be still deficient to explain a phenomenon.

this aspect, Duborgel gives an critical grant overcoming a endogenous
dimension given by a individual’s needs. When fortifying a thought that
a growth of a sketch reflects a vigour of a pedagogical
army in a instruction of a pre-set model, a author explains a production
of a still sketch as a outcome of a on-going desert of subjective
suppositious procedures to adopt picturesque productions and transitive means
of countenance so benefaction in normal propagandize illustrations.

tyro is invited to do drawings that are customarily referential describing
something experienced, in a transparent denotative approach (…). From a illustrative
sketch of an event, double of a word, a fact or a situation, one moves
on to a array of drawings organized in a method which, given there
is no text, are, above all, ‘texts in images’. The linear striking narrative
becomes a initial fabrication of a destiny texts to be review and written.
The space of sketch is not a specific cosmetic space offering to a child
to be attempted out in this dimension; it is not possibly a place or a material
for an suppositious spatial flight. It is presented according to a framework
of a letter space in that it creates a discerning stop and that it is bound
to change into. The believe of a cosmetic image, once inaugurated by
a child, has a bent to accept this form of control.
pages 140-141)

To a author, sketch is not used for a consequence of anticipation yet as a
basic proviso and to assistance children master another some-more valued kind of
language: writing. The approach it is customarily used, sketch is customarily like words
and customarily reinforces their definition in other communicative channels. Such
opinion is partial of a unequivocally despotic taming routine of a imagination, in
that a design is customarily current given of a design and receptive preciseness
(sketches, exegetic or detailed illustrations) that outshines the
cultured and artistic value. The problem to arrange out a development
of sketch from a effects suffered by propagandize vigour creates one believe
that children desert a talented proviso due to their psychological maturity,
so masking any pedagogical shortcoming for a protest on creativity.
In practice, a conditions of propagandize is rather paradoxical. At a same
time it proposes to rise tellurian potential, it limits, conducts andguidesthe
growth formed on pre-set beliefs that follow a colonisation model
of a comprehension and of a means of expression.

in mind that, when children start school, they pull in a approach unequivocally similar
to a stereotypical denote described by Duborgel, we trust that customarily the
pedagogical movement itself is not adequate to explain a objective, static
and receptive bent observed. It seems utterly trustworthy that a illustrations
in children’s books, their initial propagandize books and a priority given to
letter in a propagandize sourroundings can, in fact, have an change on the
approach an particular understands a purpose of illustration. But that is not
all. Rather than being pedagogical, this is a amicable vigour given kindergarten.
Thus, distinct a march of art and a prolongation of a good cosmetic artists
of a time, children’s drawings seem to have amicable value (and, therefore,
bolster and guidance) for a preciseness with that they represent

is, given unequivocally early, cultivated and sketch could not omit this tendency.
This seems to be a common indicate between Calkins and Duborgel: independently
of a reasons given for any of them (internal or outmost reasons) the
infancy of a children seem to see sketch as an additional component in the
clarity and construction of a idea. The rule of a objective
idea, immobile and free, seems to support a bent (observed in a original
study) of a detailed letter whose authors, in suitability with the
given reality, magnitude strech a adventurous aspects of letter writing. Throughout
a development, a design becomes, like letter – rather a approach to contend something
than to renovate it.

Parallel drawing

being used as an choice that replaces or supports writing, drawing
in some cases (more privately 35%) can start exclusively from a text
and a summary carried out. They are together drawings with a categorical aesthetic
or constructional duty in a final combination of a works nonetheless one
can't negligence a gain as an auxiliary apparatus in a process
of letter (as described in object 3.1). Despite this, a questions remain:
given do children name this kind of image? What does it meant in a final
theatre of a charge or what childish need does it heed to? The following
instance is unequivocally suggestive as it contains a many customary facilities observed.

۹: Produced as an ominous calm by an eight-year-old lady from the
second grade14.

stuffing in a vacant spaces with colours and hearts, a tyro shows three
interrelated worries from a cultured indicate of view: accoutre a work,
settle authorship and, finally, insert in a prolongation a customary reference
to a gender. Although a means to adorn, to personalise and to characterise
typically manly or delicate productions are also diluted in other practices
(like carrying stickers, crayons, opposite kinds of letters, charming paper,
drawings that support a text, etc.) or still connected with a uses of
sketch illustrated before, it is, however, in a box of together drawing
that such needs, shapes, procedures, and criteria of execution turn especially
evident. A clever demeanour during children’s productions – generally during a independent
traces of a calm – reveals ideas that are as critical for a writer
as a painting of a content, messages that could be interpreted
as: this has been constructed by a honeyed clever lady or this is a proud
prolongation of a “corintiano” (supporter of a renouned internal football

a constructional indicate of view, a instance also illustrates how design is
connected with a common use among children, yet not always taken
into comment by school. A customary instance is a apparent protocol of finalising
a text, that has been shown. Another aspect that is value mentioning
is a use of sketch as a customary apparatus to fill adult space, that is,
a correct devise to make a work visually denser, that customarily pleases
a clergyman (Colello, 1998).

Trends and Prevailing tendencies

distant a qualitative investigate of a charge between sketch and written
prolongation has shown several functions of a picture, some some-more dependent
than others on a text, connected with a product or a letter process.
The quantitative investigate of a same productions becomes applicable through
a denote of a trends and prevalent aspects in a context of school

many clear finish of a quantitative investigate confirms a predictable
supposition that, in accord with a priority clearly insincere in the
pedagogical projects, children tend to pull reduction and write more. Drawing,
which, in a initial grade, is benefaction in 84.1% of a created tasks, falls
respectively to 57.4%, 48.9% and 30.3% in a following 4 grades.

component of a devaluation of a design also justifies a predominance
of a scholastic sketch in all grades, reaching 58% in a productions
with pictures, especially in immobile shapes, that customarily strengthen a message
already benefaction in a text. In other words, in a context where writing
reigns, a space for sketch is reduced as an choice and legitimate
apparatus to broadcast a idea.

from a dwindling perspective, a prolongation of illustrations does not
conflict a appeals of writing, that is a reason given a magnitude undergoes
a transformation depending on a form of calm produced, revealing, thus, factors
and children’s needs that motivate a drawing. Whenever meditative about
a needs to draw, one can transparent a use of sketch as an alternative
for a problem in writing. The high occurrence of sketch in retelling
calm and self-portrait, respectively 70% and 100% in a initial grade
customarily strech 6% and 0% in a fifth grade.

a total connected with a worse texts tumble neatly (as students start
to master letter and turn wakeful of propagandize priorities), other factors
connected with anticipation calm and ominous text’ can explain a less
pointy diminution in sketch via propagandize development.

discreetly a bent to pull less, a transformation in a total connected
with sketch in a anticipation calm goes from 100% in a initial category to
۷۴٫۵% in a fifth. All in all 86% enclose illustrations, a prevalent aspect
that seems to accompany a proclivity of a set task, also finished by the
painting of a suppositious character. Therefore one can interpretation that
children tend to pull in situations that seductiveness to their imagination making
use of a illustrations to trigger a routine of writing. Unfortunately,
such works are not a many customary tasks compulsory by a school.

however, does not meant that a child does not pull during a pedagogical
practices frequently carried out during school. The ominous texts – traditional
propagandize activity to uncover believe – were illustrated in 57% of a cases,
display a slight dwindling transformation via a grades. The production
of such drawings, however, seems to follow another need for expression:
tighten to a illustrations presented by a propagandize books, a cinema aim
rather during an design and immobile reason of a calm than during being
an finish in itself or a approach of traffic with ideas.

Final Considerations

The exploratory investigate of a charge between sketch and writing
allows me initial to feel contemptible about a tiny seductiveness shown by some educators
to children’s final in a prolongation of propagandize work an to a values
ad meanings pupils charge to drawing. Unaware of a mechanisms that
lead to training and overcoming personal difficulties, indifferent to the
amicable grant in propagandize learning, ignorant of a believe and children’s
practices not enclosed in a calm to be mastered and finally genuine in
propinquity to a inter-linked pedagogical and amicable values that subsidise
a gain of a training project, schools still tighten themselves
in training common and squeezing proposals as against to children’s real
star and their enormous possibilities.

it is critical to doubt a march of pedagogical achievements and the
ideas that foreordain a training of writing.

a set of texts studied, a rule of illustrative, objective, ecstatic,
single-meaningful drawings and a on-going diminution of illustrations
advise pedagogical practices that are varied and prejudiced. Part
of a routine of taming a imagination so good described by Duborgel (1992)
and Jean (1991), sketch seems to transparent itself customarily as a basic phase
for writing, presumption a purpose of a ephemeral childish means rather than
a legitimate transforming resource. The implications of this seem to be
bigger when we ask ourselves: what do we learn when training writing? If
propagandize could heed itself with training to write as an finish in itself,
that is, letter as an unconstrained apparatus that could answer a needs of
countenance and communication, we would not skip many with a detriment of drawings.
But if what is during interest is a training of letter as a apparatus in the
formidable star of communication, on whose probability of countenance depends
democracy and a defeat of particular freedom, a negligence of/for drawing
(like verbal performance, music, caricature and physique denunciation in numberless
forms of expression) means an undoubted routine of creation denunciation poorer.
To deliver a child to a star of languages means many some-more than
reading and letter correctly. Paradoxically,
and above all, when not in a context of an plenty fluent repertoire,
also letter can destroy in that area endangered with a right as tellurian beings,
to paint judgment and speak to a star where we live.


B. ZELAN, K. Psicanlise da Alfabetizao um estudo psicanaltico
do ato de ler e aprender
, Porto Alegre, Artes Mdicas, 1992.

L. M. A Arte de Ensinar a Escrever O desenvolvimento do Discurso
, Porto Alegre, Artes Mdicas, 1989.

S. Escrita infantil: os mecanismos do no dizer, Anais ANPED, 1998.

Redao Infantil: Tendncias e Possibilidades, Tese de Doutorado
apresentada Faculdade de Educao da USP, So Paulo, 1997.

B. Imaginaire et Pedagogie, Toulouse, Privat, 1992.

E. Cultura Escrita e Educao, Porto Alegre, Artes Mdicas, 2001.

G. Pour une Pdagogie de lImaginaire, Paris, Casterman, 1991.

A R., O Desenvolvimento da Escrita na criana In VIGOTSKII, LURIA
e LEONTIEV, Linguagem, Desenvolvimento e Aprendizagem, So Paulo,
cone/EDUSP, 1988.

L. Aprendizagem da Lngua Escrita Processos Evolutivos e Aprendizagem,
So Paulo, tica, 1995.

, L. A Formao Social da Mente, So Paulo, Martins Fontes, 1988.

۱ Study presented during II Seminrio sobre Letramento e Alfabetizao of
a 13th COLE Congresso de Leitura do Brasil, in Campinas
(SP), Jul 2001.
Translated by English for You.

۲ Although a executive thesis of this study
is not a aim of this article, we felt it required to report a research
quickly to assistance a reader concentration a aspect here selected (the relationship
between sketch and writing) to capacitate people to know a comments
that follow, a examples presented and a context in that a drawings
were produced.

۳ Man on a Moon (base calm as a lead-in to ‘retelling text’)

initial step on a moon was taken with a feet distance 41. This was a size
of wanderer Neil Armstrong’s blue boot, afterwards aged 38, a initial male to
step on a lunar aspect on Jul 20th, 1969, during 11.56.31 p.
m. (Brasilia time). He stepped/ gave his initial step with his left foot.

stepping on a moon, with his heart violence during a rate of 156 times a
minute, Neil Armstrong pronounced his famous phrase: ‘This is a tiny step for
a male yet a enormous burst for humanity/ tellurian kind.’ It is believed that
۱٫۲ billion people watched this impulse on TV all over a world.

Armstrong and Edwin ‘Buzz’ Aldrin, a second male to step on a moon,
stranded an American steel dwindle there and placed a house sealed by a astronauts
and a American president, Richard Nixon, nearby a bottom of a lunar
module. “Here did a initial group from universe Earth set their foot
on a moon for a initial time. Jul 1969 a.D. . We have come in peace
on interest of all humanity/ tellurian kind.”

alighting on a moon, Edwin Aldrin felt like peeing and so he did, inside
a spacesuit, finished worse with 21 layers of material, there was a pocket
to collect a liquid.

a dual hours and tem mins that they spent in a Sea of Tranquility,
a plateau selected for landing, both astronauts commissioned a seismograph,
a laser reflector, an aerial for communication, an aluminium-plated dashboard
(to investigate solar radiation) and a TV camera. They collected 27 kilos of
samples of stones and dust.

Earth, a astronauts’ trek and a spacesuit
weighed 86 kilos. But on a moon, a weight was fourteen kilos.
That can be simply explained: on a moon, given of a force of gravity,
all is 6 times lighter than on Earth. Since a moon is smaller
than a Earth, a force of sobriety is also lower.So,
a bodies are captivated with reduction strength by a lunar surface.

XI left Kennedy space centre in Cape Canaveral on Jul 16th
during 9.32 a.m..

۸۵۰ reporters from 55 countries available a event.

menu on house Apollo XI was duck salad with honeyed apple salsa and prawn
cocktails. The food was hydrated with a prohibited H2O pistol. The spaceship
landed behind a tiny before dawn, in a Pacific Ocean, nearby Hawaii, on
Jul 24th – 8 days, 3 hours and eighteen mins after

۱۹۷۰, Neil Armstrong was interviewed by a Brazilian TV presenter Hebe
Camargo who asked him – in her light character – ‘Is there light on
a moon?” Very cute, isn’t it ?

other manned missions to a moon were carried out successfully by the
Americans. After a pioneers, another tem group stepped on a dry lunar

blending from a strange “O homem na Lua – Man on a Moon’ –
In Duarte, 1995)

۴ ۱۵ pieces, 9 of that from a first
category and 6 from a second; in all 2.4% of a pieces collected (or
۴٫۷% of a pieces with illustrations).

۵ In many productions of a corpus of
a research, children were so influenced by a thesis of a calm read
out that they altered a design of a charge of retelling a story,
adding or modifying information provided, introducing queries and making
personal comments. For a deeper investigate of a charge between reading
and a impact on a reader, see Bettelheim and Zelan, 1992.

۶ The investigate of a productions has shown
a well-defined psychogenetic growth in a investiture of the
criteria to name and register information, whose stages are determinant
factors in a prolongation of a recording: elaborating from biased values,
a some-more design care of a calm is reached in a progressively
deeperrelationship with a demur of suggestive and a possibilities
of memory (‘what we know and don’t need to write down’ and ‘what can be
simply forgotten’).

۷ we meant a accent among different
systems of communication (graphic, iconic, written, …) to communicate information
such as highway signs that associate incongruous and mystic images, letters,
colours and doodles.

۸ Man on a moon… Astronautssize 41… Nixon… Isto : The
Moon…. Veja: male on a Moon… Lunar Menu… Amstrong and Hebe

(Isto and Veja are brazilian weekly magazines)

۹ Text: Fantasy

we am on holiday, will we transport by
(drawing of a car) or will we go to Egypt to revisit a (drawing
of pyramids) by (drawing of a plane). I’d unequivocally like to travel
turn a
(drawing of a world) yet if we am an termite how can we do
it? we cruise I’ll have to censor myself and even more, appreciate God we am a tiny
(drawing of an ant) so we will be means to revisit a whole world
so when we come behind from my holiday I’ll
(drawing of a cemitery) –

They are over a Moon

۱۱ Birds and Chicks

The bird Tampinha has a large breast and it is fat.

The ostrich is a large bird and it can't fly. Because a wing of a ostrich
is unequivocally tiny in propinquity to a body.

The ‘toucan’ has a large bill and is unequivocally beautiful.

۱۲ I know that animals are becoming
extinct. Men get their fur to make coats and to accoutre their bodies. Many
animals are tame. Like a cat, dog, etc … Animals can be classified
in class like a snake, a lizard, etc. Some animals grown poison
to urge themselves from their predator, that is, man.

going to cut this tree down to build a retard of buildings

is a healthy habitate, of some animals yet male is destroying it.

۱۳ Not customarily given of a tiny quantity
of texts and deficient deputy painting collected (only one group
of any grade, customarily one school) yet also given of a aims of a requests

۱۴What we know about animals is that
some animals ‘is’ innate from an egg and some is innate in a mother’s
womb, some eat beef and others don’t eat they eat leaves, some live
mistake) in a belligerent others live in a waters and lions live
in a belligerent and a fish live in a waters, a piranhas are like people
yet we have to be clever given they have pointy teeth and they attack
people and we forgot to contend there are animals that eat leaves, beef and
fruit like monkeys and that is all so see we some other time, folks.

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