۸ Landscape Design Principles | Garden Design

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۰۱ آذر ۱۳۹۵

Eight manners for formulating a gratifying garden that is conjunction strict nor constraining
By Rob Steiner

Illustration by David Despau.

Table of Contents

  1. Obey a “law” of poignant enclosure
  2. Follow a controlling line
  3. Use a Golden Rectangle to get proportions right
  4. Turn to Thomas D. Church when conceptualizing steps
  5. Size matters
  6. Plant vast to small
  7. Plant in masses
  8. Remember this above all

It’s tempting, in a margin as biased as garden design, to feel that manners do not apply. However, after 28 years and hundreds of projects later, I’ve come to trust in certain manners and discipline that are conjunction strict nor constraining. All have proven useful to me over my years of garden-making. Applied by any gardener, pledge or professional, they will outcome in a some-more successful, gratifying design.

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Let’s start with dual manners that can kick-start a routine of laying out a landscape, afterwards pierce on to discipline that assistance in scaling a proportions of a garden’s elements and, finally, to selecting and controlling a right plants.

۰۱: OBEY THE “LAW” OF SIGNIFICANT ENCLOSURE

Yes, this one’s a “law,” not usually a rule! It addresses a bottom definition of garden, that is “enclosure.” This, to me, is positively vicious in formulating a clarity of retreat and of feeling oneself within nature’s embrace. The law of poignant enclosing says that we feel enclosed when a vertical corner of a space is during slightest one-third a length of a craft space we’re inhabiting. Probably subsequent from behavioral psychology studies, this sequence came to me from a highbrow in connoisseur school, and it was one of a best things we learned.

On this devise in Pacific Palisades, CA, an existent and disproportionate quarrel of ficus was reduced by half meaningful it would still some-more than sufficient hang a patio. Illustration by David Despau.

Just yesterday, as we was starting a pattern of a square that we wanted to apart from an adjacent play area, it gave me present superintendence for how high a sidestep we would need: a area was 17 feet wide, and so my sidestep should be during slightest 6 feet. Sit nearby a tree in a park, or a wall, and gradually corner away, and you’ll see how it works. Of course, there are times when a indicate of a landscape pattern is a staggering clarity of scale or view, though a best gardens, whatever their size, modulate a feeling of enclosing and openness, and this sequence will help.

۰۲: FOLLOW THE REGULATING LINE

My grave architectural preparation also introduced me to a judgment of a “regulating line.” The thought is that an component of pattern (for example, a doorway, or a building edge, even a window mullion) or a particular landscape underline (prominent tree, existent pool, skill boundary) can “generate” an hypothetical line that helps bond and classify a design. For example, in laying out one backyard, we projected a lines of a building further into a garden space and afterwards aligned a swimming pool and wooden corridor with those lines. The outcome is nurse and cohesive, even after being malleable with planting. “A controlling line,” wrote a good engineer (and theoretician) Le Corbusier, “is an declaration opposite capriciousness…It confers on a work a peculiarity of rhythm…The choice of a controlling line fixes a elemental geometry of a work….”

The decking on a opposite devise in Pacific Palisades, CA, creates a controlling line that is together to a craft emanate by a gray wall of a residence in a top right of a image. Another controlling line is combined by a corner of a pool using together to a potion window on a home. These lines join during a bottom of a tree. Illustration by David Despau.

Le Corbusier hits on a dual aspects (a bit paradoxical, perhaps) that make a controlling line so valuable. First is a thought of underlying order: that a garden, for all a naturalness, or wildness, is founded on clever principles—what’s infrequently famous in garden circles as “good bones.” Second, that controlling lines—at slightest as we occupy them—are subjective; it’s a engineer who identifies and manipulates them to emanate a garden. And I’d contend that a use of a controlling line, some-more than any other concept, separates veteran from pledge design.

۰۳: USE THE GOLDEN RECTANGLE TO GET PROPORTIONS RIGHT

Certain manners assistance us labour design. One is a Golden Ratio that is a ratio of fit that’s been celebrated in all from a Great Pyramids during Giza to a Greek Parthenon and has been used via story as a beam to a appreciative clarity of change and order. The unsentimental focus that we make of a Golden Ratio involves a sibling, a Golden Rectangle, in that a ratio of a brief side to a prolonged side is equal to a ratio of a prolonged side to a sum of both sides (a/b = b/a+b)—you substantially didn’t know that landscape architects had to learn math. Numerically, a Golden Rectangle ratio is tighten to 1: 1.6, a fit we frequently use to lay out terraces, patios, arbors, and lawns. The lifted beds in my unfeeling garden are 5 by 8 feet. It’s a rectilinear fit that always looks good—they don’t call it golden for nothing!

Raised planters in my garden follow a Golden Rectangle. Note, too, a poignant enclosing supposing by a Eugenia hedge. Illustration by David Despau.

۰۴: TURN TO THOMAS D. CHURCH WHEN DESIGNING STEPS

Another ratio might even be platinum: That’s what I’ve always called a sequence for step pattern advocated by landscape engineer Thomas D. Church, mostly credited with formulating a California style. Laid out in his seminal work Gardens Are for People, it says simply that twice a tallness of a riser and a step should equal 26 inches. That means that if a riser is 5 inches, a step (what we travel on) should be 16 inches. All we can contend is that a sequence is true, and I’ve used it from high ravine faces to peaceful changes of square levels. A useful inference states that 5 feet is a smallest breadth for dual people climbing stairs side by side.

At this Mediterranean desirous garden in a Westwood area of Los Angeles, a tile-faced stairs follow Church’s ratio. Illustration by David Despau.

۰۵: SIZE MATTERS

A final sequence associated to scale and a sculpting of space is this: Go big. Faced with a preference to make a staircase wider or narrower, a pool longer or shorter, a arbour aloft or lower, a answer is roughly always a former. In my possess garden, we remember laying out an arbor, with a posts 10 feet high, and listening to devoted friends wondering either it wasn’t “a tiny too tall.” Thankfully we stranded to my guns, and some 18 years later, wreathed in wisteria and anchored during a belligerent by clusters of pots, a shaft seems usually right.

At 10 feet, this shaft in my garden allows for unresolved and surrounding leaflet to engage and bond a shaft to a space though infringing on a clarity of space. Illustration by David Despau.

۰۶: PLANT BIG TO SMALL

It’s with plants, substantially some-more than any other component of gardens, that a gigantic movement and foolishness of inlet is many evident—and so perhaps, they are a trickiest to allot manners for. And yet, successful planting is a crowning hold of a garden. Three manners have always served me well.

The vast palms on this Mediterranean devise were already on a property; a peppers tree followed. Then a hedges and vines were installed. Only after all this were a perennials and containers planted. Illustration by David Despau.

First, is to plant vast to small: start with trees, afterwards shrubs, afterwards perennials, afterwards belligerent cover. This is critical not usually in a compositional approach (seeing a bigger forms initial gives a improved clarity of a altogether structure), though in a totally unsentimental sense. Setting a vast tree might need machine or during slightest mixed gardeners and plenty space for maneuvering and stationing amendments and soils; it would be unhappy to repairs or remove some newly planted bed. This seems so obvious, though for lots of gardeners (the author included) a retard of uninformed perennials might be unfit to equivocate planting right away. Be strong; conflict a temptation.

۰۷: PLANT IN MASSES

While there is many to be pronounced for a lodge garden, with a abounding array of sundry planting (indeed, it’s a genuine master gardener who can lift this off), there is a energy to saying a apportion of one plant that is honestly affecting. Russell Page, one of a good twentieth-century landscape designers pronounced it well: “the many distinguished and gratifying visible pleasure comes from a exercise or a massing of one elementary element. Imagine a Parthenon with any mainstay a opposite kind of marble!”

Ornamental grasses, Miscanthus sinensis ‘Morning Light’ and Sesleria autumnalis side a garden boardwalk in Pacific Palisades, CA. Using drifts on both sides of a travel reinforces a clarity of mass planting. Illustration by David Despau.

I remember as a commencement garden engineer in California being taken aside by my mentor, a transplanted Englishwoman who owned a nursery, walking by a immeasurable retard of salvia, and being told that we could, if we liked, use 30 of them—not a 3 or 5 I’d typically been planting. It was a liberating moment.

۰۸: REMEMBER THIS ABOVE ALL

Maybe my favorite sequence of all time, all a some-more desirable for a need to be practiced for inflation: It’s improved to plant a 50-cent plant in a $5 hole, than a $5 plant in a 50-cent hole. Imparted by Ralph Snodsmith, my initial central gardening clergyman during a New York Botanical Garden and speak radio horde (a impression whose operative uniform was always a timberland immature three-piece suit), there is no larger planting wisdom. No matter how shining a devise one conceives, if a plants are not good planted—at a right height, in a amply sized, and scrupulously nice pit—the formula will expected be poor. Some manners usually can’t be broken.

On nonetheless another devise in Pacific Palisades, CA, we planted a Brugmansia versicolor (angel’s trumpet). This plant had been banging around in a behind of my lorry for weeks so we asked a customer if they wanted it. With a well-dug and nice hole, it flourished. Illustration by David Despau.

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ABOUT THE AUTHORGardens are such personal and particular expressions that a really thought that there is a “way” to emanate one seems roughly insane. And a operation of prescriptions about how it should be done—from required believe such as planting high plants in a behind of a extent and brief ones in front, to a ironclad strictures of codes, covenants, and restrictions—will stir a insurgent incentive in any artistic soul. Faced with a building formula that dictates a 42-inch extent on planting, we will make it a indicate of respect to go higher. we am all for a healthy anarchistic incentive in a garden.

But we am also rigourously trained, a product of a prestigious East Coast connoisseur landscape pattern program—deemed prepared to pattern gardens when we changed west to Los Angeles to start my career. In fact, as we see it now, we knew usually a few things then, and those in a mostly fanciful way. What’s more, my believe was to be tested and mostly subverted in my new environment. Everything was different: plants, climate, construction technologies—everything. The initial time we saw eucalyptus trees hacked into coat-racks of stubs and stumps, we remember meditative “maybe that’s how they’re ostensible to be pruned.” (I got that sorted flattering quickly.) It was some years later—working initial in a vast office, afterwards in a smashing hothouse where we got an complete march in suitable planting for Southern California—that we migrated towards residential garden design. There, personal impasse seemed a highest, and a knowledge of landscape a many intimate—just a thing that had drawn me to a margin in a initial place.

Editor’s Note: This article, blending for a web, creatively seemed as an letter in a Early Spring 2015 emanate of Garden Design magazine, underneath a pretension “Rules of a Game.” Buy a emanate here.

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Read about 5 some-more landscape pattern rules on LandscapingNetwork.com.

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