Holography is a scholarship and use of origination holograms. Typically, a hologram is a detailed recording of a light field, rather than of an picture finished by a lens, and it is used to arrangement a wholly three-dimensional picture of a holographed subject, that is seen though a assist of special eyeglasses or other middle optics. The hologram itself is not an picture and it is customarily senseless when noticed underneath disband ambient light. It is an encoding of a light margin as an division settlement of clearly pointless variations in a opacity, density, or aspect form of a detailed medium. When formally lit, a division settlement diffracts a light into a facsimile of a strange light margin and a objects that were in it seem to still be there, exhibiting manifest abyss cues such as parallax and viewpoint that change practically with any change in a relations position of a observer.
In a pristine form, holography requires a use of laser light for educational a theme and for observation a finished hologram. In a analogous comparison underneath optimal conditions, a holographic picture is visually uncelebrated from a tangible subject, if a hologram and a theme are splendid customarily as they were during a time of recording. A little spin of fact around a accessible volume of space can be reproduced. In common practice, however, vital picture peculiarity compromises are finished to discharge a need for laser enlightenment when observation a hologram, and sometimes, to a border possible, also when origination it. Holographic portraiture mostly resorts to a non-holographic middle imaging procedure, to equivocate a dangerous high-powered pulsed lasers differently indispensable to optically “freeze” vital subjects as ideally as a intensely motion-intolerant holographic recording routine requires. Holograms can now also be wholly computer-generated and uncover objects or scenes that never existed.
Holography should not be confused with lenticular and other progressing autostereoscopic 3D arrangement technologies, that can furnish outwardly relating formula though are finished on compulsory lens imaging. Stage illusions such as Pepper’s Ghost and other unusual, baffling, or clearly enchanting images are also mostly wrongly called holograms.
Overview and history
The Hungarian-British physicist Dennis Gabor (in Hungarian: Gábor Dénes), was awarded a Nobel Prize in Physics in 1971 “for his invention and growth of a holographic method”. His work, finished in a late 1940s, was built on pioneering work in a margin of X-ray microscopy by other scientists including Mieczysław Wolfke in 1920 and William Lawrence Bragg in 1939. The find was an astonishing outcome of investigate into improving nucleus microscopes during a British Thomson-Houston (BTH) Company in Rugby, England, and a association filed a obvious in Dec 1947 (patent GB685286). The technique as creatively invented is still used in nucleus microscopy, where it is famous as nucleus holography, though visible holography did not unequivocally allege until a growth of a laser in 1960. The word holography comes from a Greek difference ὅλος (holos; “whole”) and γραφή (graphē; “writing” or “drawing”).
The growth of a laser enabled a initial unsentimental visible holograms that accessible 3D objects to be finished in 1962 by Yuri Denisyuk in a Soviet Union and by Emmett Leith and Juris Upatnieks during a University of Michigan, USA. Early holograms used china halide detailed emulsions as a recording medium. They were not really fit as a constructed harsh engrossed many of a occurrence light. Various methods of converting a transformation in delivery to a transformation in refractive index (known as “bleaching”) were grown that enabled many some-more fit holograms to be produced.
Several forms of holograms can be made. Transmission holograms, such as those constructed by Leith and Upatnieks, are noticed by resplendent laser light by them and looking during a reconstructed picture from a side of a hologram conflicting a source. A after refinement, a “rainbow transmission” hologram, allows some-more accessible enlightenment by white light rather than by lasers. Rainbow holograms are ordinarily used for confidence and authentication, for example, on credit cards and product packaging.
Another kind of common hologram, a thoughtfulness or Denisyuk hologram, can also be noticed regulating a white-light enlightenment source on a same side of a hologram as a spectator and is a form of hologram routinely seen in holographic displays. They are also means of multicolour-image reproduction.
Specular holography is a compared technique for origination three-dimensional images by determining a suit of specularities on a two-dimensional surface. It works by reflectively or refractively utilizing bundles of light rays, given Gabor-style holography works by diffractively reconstructing wavefronts.
Most holograms constructed are of immobile objects though systems for displaying changing scenes on a holographic volumetric arrangement are now being developed.
Holograms can also be used to store, retrieve, and routine information optically.
In a early days, holography compulsory high-power costly lasers, though nowadays, mass-produced low-cost semi-conductor or diode lasers, such as those found in millions of DVD recorders and used in other common applications, can be used to make holograms and have finished holography many some-more permitted to low-budget researchers, artists and dedicated hobbyists.
It was suspicion that it would be probable to use X-rays to make holograms of really tiny objects and viewpoint them regulating manifest light. Today, holograms with x-rays are generated by regulating synchrotrons or cat-scan free-electron lasers as deviation sources and pixelated detectors such as CCDs as recording medium. The reformation is afterwards retrieved around computation. Due to a shorter wavelength of x-rays compared to manifest light, this proceed allows to picture objects with aloft spatial resolution. As free-electron lasers can yield ultrashort and cat-scan pulses in a operation of femtoseconds that are exhilarated and coherent, cat-scan holography has been used to constraint ultrafast energetic processes.
How it works
Holography is a technique that enables a light field, that is generally a product of a light source sparse off objects, to be accessible and after reconstructed when a strange light margin is no longer present, due to a deficiency of a strange objects. Holography can be suspicion of as rather relating to sound recording, whereby a sound margin total by relocating matter like low-pitched instruments or outspoken cords, is encoded in such a proceed that it can be reproduced later, though a participation of a strange relocating matter.
In laser holography, a hologram is accessible regulating a source of laser light, that is really pristine in a tone and nurse in a composition. Various setups competence be used, and several forms of holograms can be made, though all engage a communication of light entrance from conflicting directions and producing a microscopically glorious division settlement that a plate, film, or other middle photographically records.
In one common arrangement, a laser flare is apart into two, one famous as a intent flare and a other as a anxiety beam. The intent flare is stretched by flitting it by a lens and used to irradiate a subject. The recording middle is located where this light, after being reflected or sparse by a subject, will strike it. The edges of a middle will eventually offer as a window by that a theme is seen, so a plcae is selected with that in mind. The anxiety flare is stretched and finished to gleam directly on a medium, where it interacts with a light entrance from a theme to emanate a preferred division pattern.
Like compulsory photography, holography requires an suitable bearing time to rightly impact a recording medium. Unlike compulsory photography, during a bearing a light source, a visible elements, a recording medium, and a theme contingency all sojourn ideally quiescent relations to any other, to within about a entertain of a wavelength of a light, or a division settlement will be confused and a hologram spoiled. With vital subjects and some inconstant materials, that is customarily probable if a really exhilarated and intensely brief beat of laser light is used, a dangerous procession that is singular and magnitude finished outward of systematic and industrial laboratory settings. Exposures durability several seconds to several minutes, regulating a many lower-powered invariably handling laser, are typical.
A hologram can be finished by resplendent partial of a light flare directly into a recording medium, and a other partial onto a intent in such a proceed that some of a sparse light falls onto a recording medium. A some-more stretchable arrangement for recording a hologram requires a laser flare to be destined by a array of elements that change it in conflicting ways. The initial member is a flare splitter that divides a flare into dual relating beams, any destined in conflicting directions:
- One flare (known as a illumination or object beam) is widespread regulating lenses and destined onto a theatre regulating mirrors. Some of a light sparse (reflected) from a theatre afterwards falls onto a recording medium.
- The second flare (known as a reference beam) is also widespread by a use of lenses, though is destined so that it doesn’t come in hit with a scene, and instead travels directly onto a recording medium.
Several conflicting materials can be used as a recording medium. One of a many common is a film really relating to detailed film (silver halide detailed emulsion), though with a many aloft thoroughness of light-reactive grains, origination it means of a many aloft fortitude that holograms require. A covering of this recording middle (e.g., china halide) is trustworthy to a pure substrate, that is ordinarily glass, though competence also be plastic.
When a dual laser beams strech a recording medium, their light waves join and meddle with any other. It is this division settlement that is imprinted on a recording medium. The settlement itself is clearly random, as it represents a proceed in that a scene’s light interfered with a strange light source — though not a strange light source itself. The division settlement can be deliberate an encoded chronicle of a scene, requiring a sole pivotal — a strange light source — in sequence to viewpoint a contents.
This blank pivotal is supposing after by resplendent a laser, relating to a one used to record a hologram, onto a grown film. When this flare illuminates a hologram, it is diffracted by a hologram’s aspect pattern. This produces a light margin relating to a one creatively constructed by a theatre and sparse onto a hologram.
Holography competence be improved accepted around an hearing of a differences from customary photography:
- A hologram represents a recording of information per a light that came from a strange theatre as sparse in a operation of directions rather than from customarily one direction, as in a photograph. This allows a theatre to be noticed from a operation of conflicting angles, as if it were still present.
- A sketch can be accessible regulating normal light sources (sunlight or electric lighting) given a laser is compulsory to record a hologram.
- A lens is compulsory in photography to record a image, given in holography, a light from a intent is sparse directly onto a recording medium.
- A holographic recording requires a second light flare (the anxiety beam) to be destined onto a recording medium.
- A sketch can be noticed in a far-reaching operation of lighting conditions, given holograms can customarily be noticed with really specific forms of illumination.
- When a sketch is cut in half, any retard shows half of a scene. When a hologram is cut in half, a whole theatre can still be seen in any piece. This is because, given any prove in a sketch customarily represents light sparse from a singular prove in a scene, each point on a holographic recording includes information about light sparse from every point in a scene. It can be suspicion of as observation a travel outward a residence by a 120 cm × ۱۲۰ cm (4 ft × ۴ ft) window, afterwards by a 60 cm × ۶۰ cm (2 ft × ۲ ft) window. One can see all of a same things by a smaller window (by relocating a conduct to change a observation angle), though a spectator can see some-more at once by a 120 cm (4 ft) window.
- A sketch is a two-dimensional painting that can customarily imitate a easy three-dimensional effect, given a reproduced observation operation of a hologram adds many some-more abyss notice cues that were benefaction in a strange scene. These cues are famous by a tellurian mind and translated into a same notice of a three-dimensional picture as when a strange theatre competence have been viewed.
- A sketch clearly maps out a light margin of a strange scene. The grown hologram’s aspect consists of a really fine, clearly pointless pattern, that appears to bear no attribute to a theatre it recorded.
Physics of holography
For a improved bargain of a process, it is compulsory to know division and diffraction. Interference occurs when one or some-more wavefronts are superimposed. Diffraction occurs whenever a wavefront encounters an object. The routine of producing a holographic reformation is explained subsequent utterly in terms of division and diffraction. It is rather simplified though is accurate adequate to yield an bargain of how a holographic routine works.
For those unknown with these concepts, it is inestimable to examination a sole articles before reading serve in this article.
A diffraction harsh is a structure with a repeating pattern. A elementary instance is a steel picture with slits cut during unchanging intervals. A light call occurrence on a harsh is apart into several waves; a instruction of these diffracted waves is energetic by a harsh spacing and a wavelength of a light.
A elementary hologram can be finished by superimposing dual craft waves from a same light source on a holographic recording medium. The dual waves meddle giving a true line border settlement whose appetite varies sinusoidally conflicting a medium. The spacing of a border settlement is energetic by a angle between a dual waves, and on a wavelength of a light.
The accessible light settlement is a diffraction grating. When it is splendid by customarily one of a waves used to emanate it, it can be shown that one of a diffracted waves emerges during a same angle as that during that a second call was creatively occurrence so that a second call has been ‘reconstructed’. Thus, a accessible light settlement is a holographic recording as tangible above.
If a recording middle is splendid with a prove source and a routinely occurrence craft wave, a ensuing settlement is a sinusoidal territory picture that acts as a disastrous Fresnel lens whose focal length is equal to a subdivision of a prove source and a recording plane.
When a craft wave-front illuminates a disastrous lens, it is stretched into a call that appears to apart from a focal prove of a lens. Thus, when a accessible settlement is splendid with a strange craft wave, some of a light is diffracted into a diverging flare homogeneous to a strange round wave; a holographic recording of a prove source has been created.
When a craft call is occurrence during a non-normal angle during a time of recording, a settlement finished is some-more formidable though still acts as a disastrous lens supposing it is splendid during a strange angle.
To record a hologram of a formidable object, a laser flare is initial apart into dual apart beams of light. One flare illuminates a object, that afterwards scatters light onto a recording medium. According to diffraction theory, any prove in a intent acts as a prove source of light so a recording middle can be deliberate to be splendid by a set of prove sources located during varying distances from a medium.
The second (reference) flare illuminates a recording middle directly. Each prove source call interferes with a anxiety beam, giving arise to a possess sinusoidal territory picture in a recording medium. The ensuing settlement is a sum of all these ‘zone plates’ that mix to furnish a pointless (speckle) settlement as in a sketch above.
When a hologram is splendid by a strange anxiety beam, any of a sole territory plates reconstructs a intent call that constructed it, and these sole wavefronts supplement together to refurbish a whole of a intent beam. The spectator perceives a wavefront that is relating to a wavefront sparse from a intent onto a recording medium, so that it appears to him or her that a intent is still in place even if it has been removed.
A single-frequency light call can be modeled by a formidable series U, that represents a electric or captivating margin of a light wave. The width and proviso of a light are represented by a comprehensive value and angle of a formidable number. The intent and anxiety waves during any prove in a holographic complement are given by UO and UR. The total flare is given by UO + UR. The appetite of a total beams is proportional to a retard of bulk of a total waves as:
If a detailed picture is unprotected to a dual beams and afterwards developed, a transmittance, T, is proportional to a light appetite that was occurrence on a picture and is given by
where k is a constant.
When a grown picture is splendid by a anxiety beam, a light transmitted by a plate, UH is equal to a transmittance T double by a anxiety flare width UR, giving
It can be seen that UH has 4 terms, any representing a light flare rising from a hologram. The initial of these is proportional to UO. This is a reconstructed intent flare that enables a spectator to ‘see’ a strange intent even when it is no longer benefaction in a margin of view.
The second and third beams are mutated versions of a anxiety beam. The fourth tenure is famous as a “conjugate intent beam”. It has a retreat span to a intent flare itself and forms a genuine picture of a intent in a space over a holographic plate.
When a anxiety and intent beams are occurrence on a holographic recording middle during significantly conflicting angles, a virtual, genuine and anxiety wavefronts all emerge during conflicting angles, enabling a reconstructed intent to be seen clearly.
Recording a hologram
To make a hologram, a following are required:
- a suitable intent or set of objects
- part of a laser flare to be destined so that it illuminates a intent (the intent beam) and another partial so that it illuminates a recording middle directly (the anxiety beam), enabling a anxiety flare and a light that is sparse from a intent onto a recording middle to form an division pattern
- a recording middle that translates this division settlement into an visible member that modifies possibly a width or a proviso of an occurrence light flare according to a appetite of a division pattern.
- a laser flare that produces awake light with one wavelength.
- an sourroundings that provides sufficient automatic and thermal fortitude that a division settlement is fast during a time in that a division settlement is recorded
These mandate are inter-related, and it is essential to know a inlet of visible division to see this. Interference is a transformation in appetite that can start when dual light waves are superimposed. The appetite of a maxima exceeds a sum of a sole intensities of a dual beams, and a appetite during a minima is reduction than this and competence be zero. The division settlement maps a relations proviso between a dual waves, and any change in a relations phases causes a division settlement to pierce conflicting a margin of view. If a relations proviso of a dual waves changes by one cycle, afterwards a settlement drifts by one whole fringe. One proviso cycle corresponds to a change in a relations distances trafficked by a dual beams of one wavelength. Since a wavelength of light is of a sequence of 0.5 μm, it can be seen that really tiny changes in a visible paths trafficked by possibly of a beams in a holographic recording complement lead to transformation of a division settlement that is a holographic recording. Such changes can be caused by relations movements of any of a visible components or a intent itself, and also by internal changes in air-temperature. It is essential that any such changes are significantly reduction than a wavelength of light if a pure well-defined recording of a division is to be created.
The bearing time compulsory to record a hologram depends on a laser appetite available, on a sole middle used and on a stretch and inlet of a object(s) to be recorded, customarily as in compulsory photography. This determines a fortitude requirements. Exposure times of several mins are customary when regulating utterly absolute gas lasers and china halide emulsions. All a elements within a visible complement have to be fast to fractions of a μm over that period. It is probable to make holograms of many reduction fast objects by regulating a pulsed laser that produces a vast volume of appetite in a really brief time (μs or less). These systems have been used to furnish holograms of live people. A holographic mural of Dennis Gabor was constructed in 1971 regulating a pulsed crimson laser.
Thus, a laser power, recording middle sensitivity, recording time and automatic and thermal fortitude mandate are all interlinked. Generally, a smaller a object, a some-more compress a visible layout, so that a fortitude mandate are significantly reduction than when origination holograms of vast objects.
Another really critical laser parameter is a coherence. This can be envisaged by deliberation a laser producing a sine call whose magnitude drifts over time; a conformity length can afterwards be deliberate to be a stretch over that it maintains a singular frequency. This is critical given dual waves of conflicting frequencies do not furnish a fast division pattern. The conformity length of a laser determines a abyss of margin that can be accessible in a scene. A good holography laser will typically have a conformity length of several meters, plenty for a low hologram.
The objects that form a theatre must, in general, have optically serious surfaces so that they separate light over a far-reaching operation of angles. A specularly reflecting (or shiny) aspect reflects a light in customarily one instruction during any prove on a surface, so in general, many of a light will not be occurrence on a recording medium. A hologram of a glossy intent can be finished by locating it really tighten to a recording plate.
There are 3 critical properties of a hologram that are tangible in this section. A given hologram will have one or other of any of these 3 properties, e.g. an width modulated skinny delivery hologram, or a proviso modulated, volume thoughtfulness hologram.
Amplitude and proviso modulation holograms
An width modulation hologram is one where a width of light diffracted by a hologram is proportional to a appetite of a accessible light. A candid instance of this is detailed mixture on a pure substrate. The mixture is unprotected to a division pattern, and is subsequently grown giving a transmittance that varies with a appetite of a settlement – a some-more light that fell on a picture during a given point, a darker a grown picture during that point.
A proviso hologram is finished by changing possibly a firmness or a refractive index of a member in suit to a appetite of a holographic division pattern. This is a proviso harsh and it can be shown that when such a picture is splendid by a strange anxiety beam, it reconstructs a strange intent wavefront. The potency (i.e., a fragment of a splendid intent flare that is converted into a reconstructed intent beam) is incomparable for proviso than for width modulated holograms.
Thin holograms and thick (volume) holograms
A skinny hologram is one where a firmness of a recording middle is many reduction than a spacing of a division fringes that make adult a holographic recording.
A thick or volume hologram is one where a firmness of a recording middle is incomparable than a spacing of a division pattern. The accessible hologram is now a 3 dimensional structure, and it can be shown that occurrence light is diffracted by a harsh customarily during a sole angle, famous as a Bragg angle. If a hologram is splendid with a light source occurrence during a strange anxiety flare angle though a extended spectrum of wavelengths; reformation occurs customarily during a wavelength of a strange laser used. If a angle of enlightenment is changed, reformation will start during a conflicting wavelength and a colour of a re-constructed theatre changes. A volume hologram effectively acts as a colour filter.
Transmission and thoughtfulness holograms
A delivery hologram is one where a intent and anxiety beams are occurrence on a recording middle from a same side. In practice, several some-more mirrors competence be used to proceed a beams in a compulsory directions.
Normally, delivery holograms can customarily be reconstructed regulating a laser or a quasi-monochromatic source, though a sole form of delivery hologram, famous as a rainbow hologram, can be noticed with white light.
In a thoughtfulness hologram, a intent and anxiety beams are occurrence on a picture from conflicting sides of a plate. The reconstructed intent is afterwards noticed from a same side of a picture as that during that a re-constructing flare is incident.
Only volume holograms can be used to make thoughtfulness holograms, as customarily a really low appetite diffracted flare would be reflected by a skinny hologram.
Holographic recording media
The recording middle has to modify a strange division settlement into an visible member that modifies possibly a width or a proviso of an occurrence light flare in suit to a appetite of a strange light field.
The recording middle should be means to solve wholly all a fringes outset from division between intent and anxiety beam. These border spacings can operation from tens of micrometers to reduction than one micrometer, i.e. spatial frequencies trimming from a few hundred to several thousand cycles/mm, and ideally, a recording middle should have a response that is prosaic over this range. If a response of a middle to these spatial frequencies is low, a diffraction potency of a hologram will be poor, and a low picture will be obtained. Standard detailed film has a really low or even 0 response during a frequencies concerned and can't be used to make a hologram – see, for example, Kodak’s veteran black and white film whose fortitude starts descending off during 20 lines/mm — it is doubtful that any reconstructed flare could be achieved regulating this film.
If a response is not prosaic over a operation of spatial frequencies in a division pattern, afterwards a fortitude of a reconstructed picture competence also be degraded.
The list subsequent shows a principal materials used for holographic recording. Note that these do not embody a materials used in a mass riposte of an existent hologram, that are discussed in a subsequent section. The fortitude extent given in a list indicates a maximal series of division lines/mm of a gratings. The compulsory exposure, voiced as millijoules (mJ) of photon appetite impacting a aspect area, is for a prolonged bearing time. Short bearing times (less than ۱⁄۱۰۰۰ of a second, such as with a pulsed laser) need many aloft bearing energies, due to respect failure.
Copying and mass production
An existent hologram can be copied by embossing or optically.
Most holographic recordings (e.g. frosty china halide, photoresist, and photopolymers) have aspect service patterns that heed with a strange enlightenment intensity. Embossing, that is relating to a routine used to stamp out cosmetic discs from a master in audio recording, involves duplicating this aspect service settlement by impressing it onto another material.
The initial step in a embossing routine is to make a stamper by electrodeposition of nickel on a service picture accessible on a photoresist or photothermoplastic. When a nickel covering is thick enough, it is distant from a master hologram and mounted on a steel subsidy plate. The member used to make embossed copies consists of a polyester bottom film, a creosote subdivision covering and a thermoplastic film forming a holographic layer.
The embossing routine can be carried out with a elementary exhilarated press. The bottom covering of a duplicating film (the thermoplastic layer) is exhilarated above a softening prove and pulpy opposite a stamper, so that it takes adult a shape. This figure is defended when a film is cooled and private from a press. In sequence to assent a observation of embossed holograms in reflection, an additional reflecting covering of aluminum is customarily combined on a hologram recording layer. This routine is quite matched to mass production.
The initial book to underline a hologram on a front cover was The Skook (Warner Books, 1984) by JP Miller, featuring an painting by Miller. That same year, “Telstar” by Ad Infinitum became a initial record with a hologram cover and National Geographic published a initial repository with a hologram cover. Embossed holograms are used widely on credit cards, banknotes, and high value products for authentication purposes.
It is probable to imitation holograms directly into steel regulating a piece bomb assign to emanate a compulsory aspect relief. The Royal Canadian Mint produces holographic bullion and china coinage by a formidable stamping process.
A hologram can be copied optically by educational it with a laser beam, and locating a second hologram picture so that it is splendid both by a reconstructed intent beam, and a educational beam. Stability and conformity mandate are significantly reduced if a dual plates are located really tighten together. An index relating liquid is mostly used between a plates to minimize forged division between a plates. Uniform enlightenment can be achieved by scanning point-by-point or with a flare finished into a skinny line.
Reconstructing and observation a holographic image
When a hologram picture is splendid by a laser flare relating to a anxiety flare that was used to record a hologram, an accurate reformation of a strange intent wavefront is obtained. An imaging complement (an eye or a camera) located in a reconstructed flare ‘sees’ accurately a same theatre as it would have finished when observation a original. When a lens is moved, a picture changes in a same proceed as it would have finished when a intent was in place. If several objects were benefaction when a hologram was recorded, a reconstructed objects pierce relations to one another, i.e. vaunt parallax, in a same proceed as a strange objects would have done. It was really common in a early days of holography to use a chess house as a intent and afterwards take photographs during several conflicting angles regulating a reconstructed light to uncover how a relations positions of a chess pieces seemed to change.
A holographic picture can also be achieved regulating a conflicting laser flare settlement to a strange recording intent beam, though a reconstructed picture will not compare a strange exactly. When a laser is used to refurbish a hologram, a picture is speckled customarily as a strange picture will have been. This can be a vital obstacle in observation a hologram.
White light consists of light of a far-reaching operation of wavelengths. Normally, if a hologram is splendid by a white light source, any wavelength can be deliberate to beget a possess holographic reconstruction, and these will change in size, angle, and distance. These will be superimposed, and a summed picture will clean out any information about a strange scene, as if superimposing a set of photographs of a same intent of conflicting sizes and orientations. However, a holographic picture can be achieved regulating white light in specific circumstances, e.g. with volume holograms and rainbow holograms. The white light source used to viewpoint these holograms should always guess to a prove source, i.e. a mark light or a sun. An extended source (e.g. a fluorescent lamp) will not refurbish a hologram given a light is occurrence during any prove during a far-reaching operation of angles, giving mixed reconstructions that will “wipe” one another out.
White light reconstructions do not enclose speckles.
A reflection-type volume hologram can give an acceptably pure reconstructed picture regulating a white light source, as a hologram structure itself effectively filters out light of wavelengths outward a comparatively slight range. In theory, a outcome should be an picture of approximately a same colour as a laser light used to make a hologram. In practice, with recording media that need chemical processing, there is typically a compaction of a structure due to a guess and a accompanying colour change to a shorter wavelength. Such a hologram accessible in a china halide gelatin mixture by red laser light will customarily arrangement a immature image. Deliberate proxy alteration of a mixture firmness before exposure, or permanent alteration after processing, has been used by artists to furnish surprising colours and multicolored effects.
In this method, parallax in a straight craft is sacrificed to concede a bright, well-defined, gradiently colored reconstructed picture to be achieved regulating white light. The rainbow holography recording routine customarily starts with a customary delivery hologram and copies it regulating a craft cut to discharge straight parallax in a outlay image. The spectator is therefore effectively observation a holographic picture by a slight craft slit, though a cut has been stretched into a window by a same apportionment that would differently allegation a whole image. Horizontal parallax information is accessible though transformation in a straight instruction formula in a tone change rather than altered straight perspective. Because viewpoint effects are reproduced along one pivot only, a theme will seem variously stretched or squashed when a hologram is not noticed during an best distance; this exaggeration competence go neglected when there is not many depth, though can be serious when a stretch of a theme from a craft of a hologram is really substantial. Stereopsis and craft suit parallax, dual comparatively absolute cues to depth, are preserved.
The holograms found on credit cards are examples of rainbow holograms. These are technically delivery holograms mounted onto a contemplative aspect like a metalized polyethylene terephthalate substrate ordinarily famous as PET.
Fidelity of a reconstructed beam
To replicate a strange intent flare exactly, a reconstructing anxiety flare contingency be relating to a strange anxiety flare and a recording middle contingency be means to wholly solve a division settlement finished between a intent and anxiety beams. Exact reformation is compulsory in holographic interferometry, where a holographically reconstructed wavefront interferes with a wavefront entrance from a tangible object, giving a zero border if there has been no transformation of a intent and mapping out a banishment if a intent has moved. This requires really accurate relocation of a grown holographic plate.
Any change in a shape, course or wavelength of a anxiety flare gives arise to aberrations in a reconstructed image. For instance, a reconstructed picture is magnified if a laser used to refurbish a hologram has a shorter wavelength than a strange laser. Nonetheless, good reformation is achieved regulating a laser of a conflicting wavelength, quasi-monochromatic light or white light, in a right circumstances.
Since any prove in a intent illuminates all of a hologram, a whole intent can be reconstructed from a tiny partial of a hologram. Thus, a hologram can be damaged adult into tiny pieces and any one will capacitate a whole of a strange intent to be imaged. One does, however, mislay information and a spatial fortitude gets worse as a stretch of a hologram is decreased — a picture becomes “fuzzier”. The margin of viewpoint is also reduced, and a spectator will have to change position to see conflicting collection of a scene.
Early on, artists saw a intensity of holography as a middle and gained entrance to scholarship laboratories to emanate their work. Holographic art is mostly a outcome of collaborations between scientists and artists, nonetheless some holographers would courtesy themselves as both an artist and a scientist.
Salvador Dalí claimed to have been a initial to occupy holography artistically. He was positively a initial and best-known surrealist to do so, though a 1972 New York vaunt of Dalí holograms had been preceded by a holographic art muster that was hold during a Cranbrook Academy of Art in Michigan in 1968 and by a one during a Finch College gallery in New York in 1970, that captivated inhabitant media attention. In Great Britain, Margaret Benyon began regulating holography as an artistic middle in a late 1960s and had a solo muster during a University of Nottingham art gallery in 1969. This was followed in 1970 by a solo uncover during a Lisson Gallery in London, that was billed as a “first London expo of holograms and stereoscopic paintings”.
During a 1970s, a series of art studios and schools were established, any with their sole proceed to holography. Notably, there was a San Francisco School of Holography determined by Lloyd Cross, The Museum of Holography in New York founded by Rosemary (Posy) H. Jackson, a Royal College of Art in London and a Lake Forest College Symposiums organized by Tung Jeong. None of these studios still exist; however, there is a Center for a Holographic Arts in New York and a HOLOcenter in Seoul, that offers artists a place to emanate and vaunt work.
During a 1980s, many artists who worked with holography helped a freeing of this ostensible “new medium” in a art world, such as Harriet Casdin-Silver of a United States, Dieter Jung of Germany, and Moysés Baumstein of Brazil, any one acid for a scold “language” to use with a three-dimensional work, avoiding a elementary holographic facsimile of a sculpture or object. For instance, in Brazil, many petrify poets (Augusto de Campos, Décio Pignatari, Julio Plaza and José Wagner Garcia, compared with Moysés Baumstein) found in holography a proceed to demonstrate themselves and to replenish Concrete Poetry.
A tiny though active organisation of artists still confederate holographic elements into their work. Some are compared with novel holographic techniques; for example, artist Matt Brand employed computational counterpart settlement to discharge picture exaggeration from specular holography.
The MIT Museum and Jonathan Ross both have endless collections of holography and on-line catalogues of art holograms.
Holography can be put to a accumulation of uses other than recording images. Holographic information storage is a technique that can store information during high firmness inside crystals or photopolymers. The ability to store vast amounts of information in some kind of middle is of good importance, as many electronic products incorporate storage devices. As stream storage techniques such as Blu-ray Disc strech a extent of probable information firmness (due to a diffraction-limited stretch of a essay beams), holographic storage has a intensity to spin a subsequent era of renouned storage media. The advantage of this form of information storage is that a volume of a recording media is used instead of customarily a surface. Currently accessible SLMs can furnish about 1000 conflicting images a second during 1024×۱۰۲۴-bit resolution. With a right form of middle (probably polymers rather than something like LiNbO3), this would outcome in about one-gigabit-per-second essay speed. Read speeds can transcend this, and experts trust one-terabit-per-second readout is possible.
In 2005, companies such as Optware and Maxell constructed a 120 mm front that uses a holographic covering to store information to a intensity 3.9 TB, a format called Holographic Versatile Disc. As of Sep 2014, no blurb product has been released.
Another company, InPhase Technologies, was building a competing format, though went broke in 2011 and all a resources were sole to Akonia Holographics, LLC.
While many holographic information storage models have used “page-based” storage, where any accessible hologram binds a vast volume of data, some-more new investigate into regulating submicrometre-sized “microholograms” has resulted in several intensity 3D visible information storage solutions. While this proceed to information storage can not grasp a high information rates of page-based storage, a tolerances, technological hurdles, and cost of producing a blurb product are significantly lower.
In immobile holography, recording, building and reconstructing start sequentially, and a permanent hologram is produced.
There also exist holographic materials that do not need a building routine and can record a hologram in a really brief time. This allows one to use holography to perform some elementary operations in an all-optical way. Examples of applications of such real-time holograms embody phase-conjugate mirrors (“time-reversal” of light), visible cache memories, picture guess (pattern approval of time-varying images), and visible computing.
The volume of processed information can be really high (terabits/s), given a operation is achieved in together on a whole image. This compensates for a fact that a recording time, that is in a sequence of a microsecond, is still really prolonged compared to a guess time of an electronic computer. The visible guess achieved by a energetic hologram is also many reduction stretchable than electronic processing. On one side, one has to perform a operation always on a whole image, and on a other side, a operation a hologram can perform is fundamentally possibly a computation or a proviso conjugation. In optics, further and Fourier renovate are already simply achieved in linear materials, a latter simply by a lens. This enables some applications, such as a device that compares images in an visible way.
The hunt for novel nonlinear visible materials for energetic holography is an active area of research. The many common materials are photorefractive crystals, though in semiconductors or semiconductor heterostructures (such as quantum wells), atomic vapors and gases, plasmas and even liquids, it was probable to beget holograms.
A quite earnest focus is visible proviso conjugation. It allows a dismissal of a wavefront distortions a light flare receives when flitting by an aberrating medium, by promulgation it behind by a same aberrating middle with a conjugated phase. This is useful, for example, in free-space visible communications to recompense for windy turmoil (the materialisation that gives arise to a wink of starlight).
Since a commencement of holography, pledge experimenters have explored a uses.
In 1971, Lloyd Cross non-stop a San Francisco School of Holography and taught amateurs how to make holograms regulating customarily a tiny (typically 5 mW) helium-neon laser and inexpensive handcrafted equipment. Holography had been ostensible to need a really costly steel visible list set-up to close all a concerned elements down in place and damp any vibrations that could fuzz a division fringes and hurt a hologram. Cross’s home-brew choice was a sandbox finished of a dirt retard maintaining wall on a plywood base, upheld on stacks of aged tires to besiege it from belligerent vibrations, and filled with silt that had been cleared to mislay dust. The laser was firmly mounted atop a dirt retard wall. The mirrors and elementary lenses indispensable for directing, bursting and expanding a laser flare were merged to brief lengths of PVC pipe, that were stranded into a silt during a preferred locations. The theme and a detailed picture hilt were likewise upheld within a sandbox. The holographer incited off a room light, blocked a laser flare nearby a source regulating a tiny relay-controlled shutter, installed a picture into a hilt in a dark, left a room, waited a few mins to let all settle, afterwards finished a bearing by remotely handling a laser shutter.
Many of these holographers would go on to furnish art holograms. In 1983, Fred Unterseher, a co-founder of a San Francisco School of Holography and a obvious holographic artist, published a Holography Handbook, an easy-to-read beam to origination holograms during home. This brought in a new call of holographers and supposing elementary methods for regulating a then-available AGFA china halide recording materials.
In 2000, Frank DeFreitas published a Shoebox Holography Book and introduced a use of inexpensive laser pointers to vast hobbyists. For many years, it had been insincere that certain characteristics of semiconductor laser diodes finished them probably invalid for formulating holograms, though when they were eventually put to a exam of unsentimental experiment, it was found that not customarily was this untrue, though that some indeed supposing a conformity length many incomparable than that of normal helium-neon gas lasers. This was a really critical growth for amateurs, as a cost of red laser diodes had forsaken from hundreds of dollars in a early 1980s to about $5 after they entered a mass marketplace as a member of DVD players in a late 1990s. Now, there are thousands of pledge holographers worldwide.
By late 2000, holography kits with inexpensive laser pointer diodes entered a mainstream consumer market. These kits enabled students, teachers, and hobbyists to make several kinds of holograms though specialized equipment, and became renouned present apparatus by 2005. The introduction of holography kits with self-developing plates in 2003 finished it probable for hobbyists to emanate holograms though a worry of soppy chemical processing.
In 2006, a vast series of over-abundance holography-quality immature lasers (Coherent C315) became accessible and put dichromated gelatin (DCG) holography within a strech of a pledge holographer. The holography village was astounded during a extraordinary attraction of DCG to immature light. It had been insincere that this attraction would be uselessly slight or non-existent. Jeff Blyth responded with a G307 plan of DCG to boost a speed and attraction to these new lasers.
Kodak and AGFA, a former vital suppliers of holography-quality china halide plates and films, are no longer in a market. While other manufactures have helped fill a void, many amateurs are now origination their possess materials. The favorite formulations are dichromated gelatin, Methylene-Blue-sensitised dichromated gelatin, and freeing routine china halide preparations. Jeff Blyth has published really accurate methods for origination these in a tiny lab or garage.
A tiny organisation of amateurs are even constructing their possess pulsed lasers to make holograms of vital subjects and other liquid or relocating objects.
Holographic interferometry (HI) is a technique that enables immobile and energetic displacements of objects with optically serious surfaces to be totalled to visible interferometric pointing (i.e. to fractions of a wavelength of light). It can also be used to detect optical-path-length variations in pure media, that enables, for example, liquid upsurge to be visualized and analyzed. It can also be used to beget contours representing a form of a surface.
It has been widely used to magnitude stress, strain, and quivering in engineering structures.
The hologram keeps a information on a width and proviso of a field. Several holograms competence keep information about a same placement of light, issued to several directions. The numerical research of such holograms allows one to obey vast numerical aperture, which, in turn, enables encouragement of a fortitude of visible microscopy. The analogous technique is called interferometric microscopy. Recent achievements of interferometric microscopy concede one to proceed a quarter-wavelength extent of resolution.
Sensors or biosensors
The hologram is finished with a mutated member that interacts certain molecules generating a change in a border succession or refractive index, therefore, a tone of a holographic reflection.
Security holograms are really formidable to forge, given they are replicated from a master hologram that requires expensive, specialized and technologically modernized equipment. They are used widely in many currencies, such as a Brazilian 20, 50, and 100-reais notes; British 5, 10, and 20-pound notes; South Korean 5000, 10,000, and 50,000-won notes; Japanese 5000 and 10,000 yen notes, India 50,100,500, and 1000 rupee notes; and all a currently-circulating banknotes of a Canadian dollar, Danish krone, and Euro. They can also be found in credit and bank cards as good as passports, ID cards, books, DVDs, and sports equipment.
Covertly storing information within a full colour picture hologram was achieved in Canada, in 2008, during a UHR lab. The routine used a fourth wavelength, aside from a RGB components of a intent and anxiety beams, to record additional data, that could be retrieved customarily with a scold pivotal multiple of wavelength and angle. This technique remained in a antecedent theatre and was never grown for blurb applications.
Holographic scanners are in use in post offices, incomparable shipping firms, and programmed circuit systems to establish a three-dimensional stretch of a package. They are mostly used in tandem with checkweighers to concede programmed pre-packing of given volumes, such as a lorry or pallet for bulk conveyance of goods. Holograms constructed in elastomers can be used as stress-strain reporters due to a agility and compressibility, a vigour and force practical are correlated to a reflected wavelength, therefore a color.
These are a hologram glue strips that yield insurance opposite counterfeiting and duplication of products. These safeguarding strips can be used on FMCG products like cards, medicines, food, audio-visual products etc. Hologram insurance strips can be directly laminated on a product covering.
Electrical and electronic products
Hologram tags have an glorious ability to check an relating product. These kind of tags are some-more mostly used for safeguarding duplication of electrical and electronic products. These tags are accessible in a accumulation colors, sizes and shapes.
Hologram dockets for car series plate
Some car series plates on bikes or cars have purebred hologram stickers that prove authenticity. For a purpose of marker they have singular ID numbers.
High confidence holograms for credit cards
These are holograms with high confidence facilities like micro texts, nano texts, formidable images, logos and a throng of other features. Holograms once merged on Debit cards/passports can't be private easily. They offer an sole temperament to a code along with a protection.
In principle, it is probable to make a hologram for any wave.
Electron holography is a focus of holography techniques to nucleus waves rather than light waves. Electron holography was invented by Dennis Gabor to urge a fortitude and equivocate a aberrations of a delivery nucleus microscope. Today it is ordinarily used to investigate electric and captivating fields in skinny films, as captivating and electric fields can change a proviso of a interfering call flitting by a sample. The element of nucleus holography can also be practical to division lithography.
Acoustic holography is a routine used to guess a sound margin nearby a source by measuring acoustic parameters divided from a source around an array of vigour and/or molecule quickness transducers. Measuring techniques enclosed within acoustic holography are apropos increasingly renouned in several fields, many particularly those of transportation, car and aircraft design, and NVH. The ubiquitous thought of acoustic holography has led to conflicting versions such as near-field acoustic holography (NAH) and statistically optimal near-field acoustic holography (SONAH). For audio rendition, a call margin singularity is a many compared procedure.
Atomic holography has developed out of a growth of a simple elements of atom optics. With a Fresnel diffraction lens and atomic mirrors atomic holography follows a healthy step in a growth of a production (and applications) of atomic beams. Recent developments including atomic mirrors and generally ridged mirrors have supposing a collection compulsory for a origination of atomic holograms, nonetheless such holograms have not nonetheless been commercialized.
Effects constructed by lenticular printing, a Pepper’s Ghost apparition (or complicated variants such as a Musion Eyeliner), tomography and volumetric displays are mostly confused with holograms. Such illusions have been called “fauxlography”.
The Pepper’s spook technique, being a easiest to exercise of these methods, is many prevalent in 3D displays that explain to be (or are referred to as) “holographic”. While a strange illusion, used in theater, concerned tangible earthy objects and persons, located offstage, complicated variants reinstate a source intent with a digital screen, that displays imagery generated with 3D mechanism graphics to yield a compulsory abyss cues. The reflection, that seems to boyant mid-air, is still flat, however, so reduction picturesque than if an tangible 3D intent was being reflected.
Examples of this digital chronicle of Pepper’s spook apparition embody a Gorillaz performances in a 2005 MTV Europe Music Awards and a 48th Grammy Awards; and Tupac Shakur’s unsentimental opening during Coachella Valley Music and Arts Festival in 2012, rapping alongside Snoop Dogg during his set with Dr. Dre.
An even easier apparition can be total by rear-projecting picturesque images into semi-transparent screens. The back projection is compulsory given differently a semi-transparency of a shade would concede a credentials to be splendid by a projection, that would mangle a illusion.
Crypton Future Media, a song program association that constructed Hatsune Miku, one of many Vocaloid singing synthesizer applications, has constructed concerts that have Miku, along with other Crypton Vocaloids, behaving on theatre as “holographic” characters. These concerts use back projection onto a semi-transparent DILAD screen to grasp a “holographic” effect.
In 2011, in Beijing, attire association Burberry constructed a “Burberry Prorsum Autumn/Winter 2011 Hologram Runway Show”, that enclosed life stretch 2-D projections of models. The company’s possess video shows several centered and off-center shots of a categorical 2-dimensional projection screen, a latter divulgence a flatness of a unsentimental models. The explain that holography was used was reported as fact in a trade media.
In Madrid, on 10 Apr 2015, a open manifest display called “Hologramas por la Libertad” (Holograms for Liberty), featuring a resounding unsentimental throng of demonstrators, was used to criticism a new Spanish law that prohibits adults from demonstrating in open places. Although widely called a “hologram protest” in news reports, no tangible holography was concerned — it was nonetheless another technologically updated various of a Pepper’s Ghost illusion.
Microsoft Hololens has presented several examples of protracted existence and claimed to be formulating a “holographic computer”. This, however, has zero to do with tangible holography.
Holography has been widely referred to in movies, novels, and TV, customarily in scholarship fiction.
- Gabor, Dennis (1948). “A new little principle”. Nature. 161: 777–۸٫ Bibcode:1948Natur.161..777G. doi:10.1038/161777a0. PMID ۱۸۸۶۰۲۹۱٫
- Gabor, Dennis (1949). “Microscopy by reconstructed wavefronts”. Proceedings of a Royal Society. London. 197 (1051): 454–۴۸۷٫ Bibcode:1949RSPSA.197..454G. doi:10.1098/rspa.1949.0075.
- “The Nobel Prize in Physics 1971”. Nobelprize.org. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Hariharan, (1996), Section 1.2, p4-5
- Denisyuk, Yuri N. (1962). “On a thoughtfulness of visible properties of an intent in a call margin of light sparse by it”. Doklady Akademii Nauk SSSR. 144 (6): 1275–۱۲۷۸٫
- Leith, E.N.; Upatnieks, J. (1962). “Reconstructed wavefronts and communication theory”. J. Opt. Soc. Am. 52 (10): 1123–۱۱۳۰٫ doi:10.1364/JOSA.52.001123.
- Upatniek J Leaonard C., (1969), “Diffraction potency of frosty photographically accessible intereference patterns”, Applied Optics, 8, p85-89
- Graube A, (1974), “Advances in splotch methods for photographically accessible holograms”, Applied Optics, 13, p2942-6
- N. J. Phillips and D. Porter, (1976), “An allege in a guess of holograms,” Journal of Physics E: Scientific Instruments p. 631
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 7.1, p 60
- Benton S.A, (1977), “White light transmission/reflection holography” in Applications of Holography and Optical Data Processing, ed. E. Marom et al., ps 401-9, Pregamon Press, Oxford
- Toal Vincent (2012), “Introduction to Holography”, CRC Press, ISBN 978-1-4398-1868-8
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 7.2, p61
- “specular holography: how”. Zintaglio.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “MIT unveils holographic TV system”. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- See Zebra imaging.
- Blanche, P.-A.; Bablumian, A.; Voorakaranam, R.; Christenson, C.; Lin, W.; Gu, T.; Flores, D.; Wang, P.; et al. (2010). “Holographic three-dimensional telepresence regulating large-area photorefractive polymer”. Nature. 468 (7320): 80–۸۳٫ Bibcode:2010Natur.468…80B. doi:10.1038/nature09521. PMID ۲۱۰۴۸۷۶۳٫
- Hariharan, (2002), 12.6, p107
- Eisebitt, S.; et al. (2004). “Lensless imaging of captivating nanostructures by X-ray spectro-holography”. Nature. 432: 885–۸۸۸٫ Bibcode:2004Natur.432..885E. doi:10.1038/nature03139.
- Pfau, B.; et al. (2014). “Influence of wandering fields on a switching-field placement for bit-patterned media finished on pre-patterned substrates”. Applied Physics Letters. 105: 132407. Bibcode:2014ApPhL.105m2407P. doi:10.1063/1.4896982.
- Chapman, H. N.; et al. (2007). “Femtosecond time-delay X-ray holography”. Nature. 448: 676–۶۷۹٫ Bibcode:2007Natur.448..676C. doi:10.1038/nature06049.
- Günther, C.M.; et al. (2011). “Sequential femtosecond X-ray imaging”. Nature Photonics. 5: 99–۱۰۲٫ Bibcode:2011NaPho…5…99G. doi:10.1038/nphoton.2010.287.
- von Korff, Schmising (2014). “Imaging Ultrafast Demagnetization Dynamics after a Spatially Localized Optical Excitation”. Physical Review Letters. 112: 217203. Bibcode:2014PhRvL.112u7203V. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.112.217203.
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 1, p1
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 7,1. p60
- Martinez-Hurtado et al. doi:10.1021/la102693m
- Hariharan, (2002), Figure 4.5, p44
- “Photograph of Dennis Gabor station beside his holographic portrait”. MIT. Retrieved 2011-09-16.
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 4.2, p40
- Hariharan, (2002), Figure 7.2, p62
- Lipson, (2011), Seection12.5.4, p443
- “Kodak black and white veteran film|” (PDF). Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- Hariharan, (1996), Section 6.4, p88
- Kozma A Zelenka JS, (1970), Effect of film fortitude and stretch in holography, Journal of a Optical Society of America, 60, 34–۴۳
- Hariharan, (2002), Table 6.1, p50
- Iwata F Tsujiiuchi J (1974), “Characteristics oof a photoresist hologram and a replica”, Applied Optics, 13, p1327-36
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 11.4.1, p191
- Toal Vincent, 2012, Introcution to Holography, CRC Press, ISBN 978-1-4398-1868-8
- “Holograms with bomb power”. Physorg.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “Lunar Holographic Coins”. Retrieved 2011-09-14.
- Harris JR, Sherman GC and Billings BH, 1966, Copying hologram, Applied Optics, 5, 665–۶
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 2.3, p17
- Hariharan, (2002), Section 7.4, p63
- S. Koreshev, A. Gromov, O. Nikanorov, “Modernized Software Complex for Synthesis and Reconstruction of Fresnel Holograms-Projectors”, Scientific and Technical Journal of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics, Number 6, Volume 12, 2012
- “The History and Development of Holography”. Holophile.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Coyle, Rebecca (1990). “Holography – Art in a space of technology”. In Philip Hayward (ed.). Culture, Technology Creativity in a Late Twentieth Century. London, England: John Libbey and Company. pp. ۶۵–۸۸٫ ISBN ۰-۸۶۱۹۶-۲۶۶-۴٫ CS1 maint: Uses editors parameter (link)
- “Margaret Benyon Holography”. Lisson Gallery. Retrieved 4 February 2016.
- Integraf. “Dr. Tung J. Jeong Biography”. Integraf.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “holocenter”. holocenter. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Holographic metalwork http://www.zintaglio.com
- “MIT Museum: Collections – Holography”. Web.mit.edu. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “The Jonathan Ross Hologram Collection”. Jrholocollection.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- R. Ryf et al. High-frame-rate corner Fourier-transform correlator finished on Sn2P2S6 crystal, Optics Letters 26, 1666–۱۶۶۸ (۲۰۰۱)
- Stephen Cass: Holiday Gifts 2005 Gifts and gadgets for technophiles of all ages: Do-It Yourself-3-D. In IEEE Spectrum, Nov 2005
- Chiaverina, Chris: Litiholo holography – So easy even a caveman could have finished it (apparatus review). In The Physics Teacher, vol. 48, Nov 2010, pp. 551–۵۵۲٫
- “A Holography FAQ”. HoloWiki. 2011-02-15. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “Many methods are here”. Holowiki.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “Jeff Blyth’s Film Formulations”. Cabd0.tripod.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Powell RL Stetson KA, 1965, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 55, 1593–۸
- Jones R and Wykes C, Holographic and Speckle Interferometry, 1989, Cambridge University Press ISBN 0-521-34417-4
- Y.Kuznetsova; A.Neumann, S.R.Brueck (2007). “Imaging interferometric microscopy–approaching a linear systems boundary of visible resolution”. Optics Express. 15 (11): 6651–۶۶۶۳٫ Bibcode:2007OExpr..15.6651K. doi:10.1364/OE.15.006651. PMID ۱۹۵۴۶۹۷۵٫
- AK Yetisen; H Butt; F da Cruz Vasconcellos; Y Montelongo; CAB Davidson; J Blyth; JB Carmody; S Vignolini; U Steiner; JJ Baumberg; TD Wilkinson; CR Lowe (2013). “Light-Directed Writing of Chemically Tunable Narrow-Band Holographic Sensors”. Advanced Optical Materials. 2 (3): 250–۲۵۴٫ doi:10.1002/adom.201300375.
- MartíNez-Hurtado, J. L.; Davidson, C. A. B.; Blyth, J.; Lowe, C. R. (2010). “Holographic Detection of Hydrocarbon Gases and Other Volatile Organic Compounds”. Langmuir. 26 (19): 15694–۱۵۶۹۹٫ doi:10.1021/la102693m. PMID ۲۰۸۳۶۵۴۹٫
- ‘Elastic hologram’ pages 113–۱۱۷, Proc. of a IGC 2010, ISBN 978-0-9566139-1-2 here: http://www.dspace.cam.ac.uk/handle/1810/225960
- R. E. Dunin-Borkowski et al., Micros. Res. and Tech. vol. 64, pp. 390–۴۰۲ (۲۰۰۴)
- K. Ogai et al., Jpn. J. Appl. Phys., vol. 32, pp.5988–۵۹۹۲ (۱۹۹۳)
- F. Shimizu; J.Fujita (March 2002). “Reflection-Type Hologram for Atoms”. Physical Review Letters. 88 (12): 123201. Bibcode:2002PhRvL..88l3201S. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.88.123201. PMID ۱۱۹۰۹۴۵۷٫
- “Holographic announcers during Luton airport”. Bbc.co.uk. 2011-01-31. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Farivar, Cyrus (2012-04-16). “Tupac “hologram” merely flattering cold visible illusion”. Arstechnica.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “Tupac earnings as a hologram during Coachella”. The Marquee Blog – CNN.com Blogs. CNN. 16 Apr 2012. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- . Crypton.co.jp http://www.crypton.co.jp/mp/pages/prod/vocaloid/. Retrieved 2012-04-21. Missing or dull
- G., Adrian. “LA’s Anime Expo hosting Hatsune Miku’s initial US live opening on Jul 2nd”. Retrieved 20 April 2012.
- ““We can entice Hatsune Miku in my room!”, Part 2 (video)”. Youtube.com. 2011-09-07. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- Firth, Niall (12 Nov 2010). “Japanese 3D singing hologram Hatsune Miku becomes nation’s strangest cocktail star”. London: Daily mail online. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- “Technically incorrect: Tomorrow’s Miley Cyrus? A hologram live in concert!”. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- “Hatsune Miku – World is Mine Live in HD”. Retrieved 29 April 2011.
- “Burberry Beijing – Full Show”. Youtube.com. Retrieved 2012-04-21.
- “Burberry lands in China”. Retrieved June 14, 2011.
- “First Hologram Protest in History Held Against Spain’s Gag Law”. revolution-news.com. Retrieved 2015-04-13.
- Hariharan P, 1996, Optical Holography, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-43965-5
- Hariharan P, 2002, Basics of Holography, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-00200-1
- Lipson A., Lipson SG, Lipson H, Optical Physics, 2011, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-49345-1
- Lasers and holography: an introduction to awake optics W. E. Kock, Dover Publications (1981), ISBN 978-0-486-24041-1
- Principles of holography H. M. Smith, Wiley (1976), ISBN 978-0-471-80341-6
- G. Berger et al., Digital Data Storage in a phase-encoded holograhic memory system: information peculiarity and security, Proceedings of SPIE, Vol. 4988, p. ۱۰۴–۱۱۱ (۲۰۰۳)
- Holographic Visions: A History of New Science Sean F. Johnston, Oxford University Press (2006), ISBN 0-19-857122-4
- Saxby, Graham (2003). Practical Holography, Third Edition. Taylor and Francis. ISBN ۹۷۸-۰-۷۵۰۳-۰۹۱۲-۷٫
- Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques Takanori Okoshi, Atara Press (2011), ISBN 978-0-9822251-4-1
- Holographic Microscopy of Phase Microscopic Objects: Theory and Practice Tatyana Tishko, Tishko Dmitry, Titar Vladimir, World Scientific (2010), ISBN 978-981-4289-54-2
Wikimedia Commons has media compared to Holography.
- The Nobel esteem harangue of Dennis Gabor
- How Stuff Works – holograms
- Animations demonstrating holography by QED
Article source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Holography
طرح تاتو برای بدن- آموزش نقوش حنا. ... تاتو با حنا · تاتو حنا · چند طرح برای تاتو حنا · اموزش تاتو حنا · تاتوی حنا · آموزش تاتو حنا ·طرح تاتو بدن با حنا · شابلون تاتو ...
طرح تاتو بدن با حنا- آموزش نقوش حنا. ... تاتو با حنا · تاتو حنا · چند طرح برای تاتو حنا · اموزش تاتو حنا · تاتوی حنا · آموزش تاتو حنا ·طرح تاتو بدن با حنا · شابلون ...
طرح تاتو طراحی روی بدن شابلون تاتو- آموزش نقوش حنا.
طرح تاتو- آموزش نقوش حنا. ... طرح تاتو طراحی روی بدن شابلون تاتو · شابلون بدن · طرح های شابلون · شابلون تاتو روی بدن · شابلونطرح تاتو · سفارش شابلون · شابلون ...
خالْکوبی یا تَتو (تاتو) به عمل ایجاد نقوش دائمی یا با ماندگاری طولانی بر روی ... در ابتدا طرح خالکوبی را با خودکار بر روی بدن میکشند، سپس سوزن سرطلایی را درون ...
محافظ دست با طرح تاتو های مختلف بدون اینکه هیچ آسیبی به پوست خود برسانید ، نقوش زیبای تاتو را بر دستان خود داشته باشید! قیمت…,نقوش تاتو,تاتو.
آموزش تتو لب - ابرو - فرموژه و تاتو بر روی دست - اورجینال · آموزش تتو لب - ابرو ... گنجینه نقش و نگار (مجموعه نقوش اسلیمی و هنری ایرانی و شرقی) · گنجینه نقش و ...
هنر تاتو و خالکوبی tattoo art - توضیحاتی در زمینه تاتو از انتخاب طرح تا اجرا و ... خالْکوبی یا تَتو (تاتو) به عمل ایجاد نقوش دائمی یا با ماندگاری طولانی بر روی ...
طرح تاتو و خالکوبی Facebook ، طرح تاتو و خالکوبی ۲ ۴۰۶ likes · ۳ talking about this tatoo. انواع طرح خالکوبی بدن Eforosh ایفروش،یادگیری انواع مدل های نقوش ...
نوعی نقاشی با حنا برروی بدن است و معمولا نقشها به صورت گل و طرح های منظم هستند. در این وبلاگ ... مرتبط با: تتو موقت حنا , آموزشتاتو حنا , نقوش حنا , تاتو حنا ,.
بنابر پژوهش حاضر نقوش تاتو و ايجاد آنها بر بدن ضمن برخورداری .... طرح های موردنظر در اين هنر- حرفه می پردازند. ... طرح ها و اجرای اين هنر و هدف از اين كار در ميان افراد.
www.asriran.com › صفحه نخست › سیاسی
Jul 19, 2011 - سهام سجيراتيپور در گفتوگو با ايسنا بيان كرد: نقوش خالكوبي زنان ... و زنان عرب بوده و مردان تنها از طرح حيوانات براي خالكوبي استفاده ميكنند.
طرح تاتو ساق پا پسرونهدانلود نرم افزار طرح عکس تاتو خالکوبی جدید کمر،ران،بازو،شکم،پا ...خالْکوبی یا تَتو (تاتو) به عمل ایجاد نقوشدائمی یا با ماندگاری طولانی ...
خدمات تاتو موقت حنا |آموزش تاتو بدن - مطالب نقوش حنا - مرکز و آرایشگاه آموزش خدمات ... ۰۹۱۲٫۷۰۰٫۹۲۵۶با بهترین مواد حنای طبیعی- هندی-سیاه با آموزش نقش و طرحهای زیبا.
کم نیستند جوانانی که امروزه گرایش زیادی به سمت خالکوبی دارندو طرح های بزرگ و ... خالْکوبی یا تَتو (تاتو) به عمل ایجاد نقوش دائمی یا با ماندگاری طولانی بر روی ...
Feb 7, 2017 - طرح تاتو تاج ۲۰۱۶ جدید - عکسهای زیبا ۹۵-۲۰۱۷دانلود عکس خالکوبی و .... زیبا برای بیماران سرطانی استفاده از حنا برای کشیدن نقوش زیبا روی
خالْکوبی یا تَتو (تاتو) به عمل ایجاد نقوش دائمی یا با ماندگاری طولانی بر روی پوست ... خیلی هیجان انگیز است من پشت گردنم را یک طرحپر از نقش و نگار زده ام و با ...
استفاده از مام برای شابلون کردن طرح تاتو. ... آموزش نقوش حنا کار با قیف ، قلم ، شابلون جهت ایجاد نقوش زیبای حنا شامل ۳ cd کار با قیف ، قلم ، شابلون جهت ایجاد نقوش ...
Jul 20, 2016 - خالْکوبی یا تَتو (تاتو) به عمل ایجاد نقوش دائمی یا با ماندگاری طولانی بر ... طرح بوته گل یا گنجشک در زیر گردن برای زیبایی به کار میرفتهاست.