Consciousness: Addendum G

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۰ خرداد ۱۳۹۶

CONSCIOUSNESS
© C.O. Evans J. Fudjack

Addendum G –
Jung and a Archetype[table of contents]  [previous]  [next]


We shall deliver a judgment of a archetype, to that we
turn a courtesy in this section, by recapitulating a discussion
of a comatose presented by Liliane Frey-Rohn in her book, From
Freud to Jung: a equivalent investigate of a unconscious
. In the
discussion we have in mind she starts by reminding a reader that
Freud renowned between a detailed and energetic clarity of the
unconscious. As we have forked out (in territory B) that that was
only comatose in a detailed clarity Freud called the
preconscious, renting a tenure ‘unconscious’ for that that was
unconscious in a energetic sense, a comatose proper. In Frey-
Rohn’s opinion,

It can straightforwardly be seen that a implicit unconscious
[preconscious] mostly coincided with a “fringe of
consciousness”, that is tighten to consciousness, and, during the
same time, with a chiaroscuro of a border phenomena of
consciousness– an thought that Jung borrowed from William
James. ۱۷۳

This reflects a try to interpret references to the
preconscious as references to auxiliary awareness. However, as
Frey Rohn rightly points out,

…as distant as Freud was concerned, a comatose constituted
an radically opposite group than a (pre)conscious. ۱۷۴

In territory B we famous that it was Freud’s enterprise to conceive
of a comatose correct as a detached group and we argued for
the probability of construing a comatose correct in terms of
subsidiary awareness. Jung referred to Freud’s comatose proper,
as renowned from a preconscious,

-page 169-

as a ‘personal unconscious’ for reasons that we shall shortly
see, and Frey-Rohn tells us that…

In contrariety [to Freud], Jung could not see a simple difference
between a dual spheres of alertness [the unwavering and
a preconscious] and a personal comatose [unconscious
proper], that is, a repressed. ۱۷۵

Indeed, she mentions…

…Jung’s steady matter shortening Freud’s repressed-
comatose [unconscious proper] to zero other than “a
subconscious appendix to a unwavering mind”… ۱۷۶

Jung, it appears, would have been radically in agreement with the
strategy we adopted in a final territory (F), according to that the
unconscious correct was accepted in terms of a formidable of rival
contexting components of auxiliary awareness. But, we learn, just
as shortly as it looks as if all references to a preconscious and
unconscious can be construed as references to auxiliary awareness
or some specific underline of auxiliary awareness, Jung reintroduces
the judgment of an comatose detached from consciousness! This
unconscious is totally opposite from a ‘personal unconscious’,
that is, Freud’s comatose proper. Jung call it a collective
unconscious.

In after life Jung came to see a comatose as an agency
that differed from consciousness. This ostensible contradiction
to his progressing statements competence be customarily a outcome of his
fixation a dividing line between a dual agencies deeper than
before (that is, between alertness and a collective
unconscious), while during a same time, accentuating their
differences in content. ۱۷۷

Jung used a judgment of a archetype to brand a calm of
the common unconscious.

According to Jung, a archetype resides in a collective
unconscious, forming a content. The archetype itself never
enters alertness nonetheless it can perceptible itself in
consciousness in a form of an ‘archetypal

-page 170-

representation’. Like a dream which, according to a Freudian
analysis, points over a perceptible calm to a implicit content,
the classic illustration points over itself and
consciousness to a archetype in a presumed collective
unconscious.

In this territory we shall offer an interpretation of the
archetype that obviates positing a existence of an agency
separate from consciousness, a reified unconscious. In doing this
we shall inform Jung’s judgment of a comatose of a residual
reificationism exhibited in his bargain of a collective
unconscious.

The archetype, according to Jung, can never enter
consciousness. All we know about it we know by trait of its
manifestations in alertness in a form of archetypal
representations. We must, according to Jung, be confident with
such surreptitious trust as it is a product of deduction from such
representations.

The classic representations (images and ideas) mediated to
us by a comatose should not be confused with the
archetype as such. They are really sundry structures that all
prove behind to one radically “irrepresentable” simple form.
The latter is characterized by certain grave elements and by
certain elemental meanings, nonetheless these can be grasped
customarily approximately. The archetype as such is a psychoid
cause that belongs, as it were, to a invisible, ultraviolet
finish of a penetrating spectrum.
It does not appear, in itself,
to be means of reaching consciousness. we try this
supposition given all classic that is perceived
by alertness seems to paint a set of variations on a
belligerent theme. One is many tender by this act when one
studies a unconstrained variations of a mandala motif. ۱۷۸

Indeed, Jung reasons that given we can customarily know a archetype
indirectly there is small clarity in vocalization of archetypes (in the
plural — all one need postulate is a existence of a single
archetype that all classic representations can be pronounced to
manifest or impute behind to.

-page 171-


We must, however, constantly bear in mind that what we mean
by “archetype” is in itself irrepresentable, though has effects
that make visualizations of it possible, namely, the
classic images and ideas. …When a existence of dual or
some-more irrepresentables is assumed, there is always the
possibility– that we tend to overlook–that it competence not be
a doubt of dual or some-more factors though of one only. The
temperament or non-identity of dual irrepresentable quantities is
something that can't be proved. ۱۷۹

In both passages Jung characterizes a archetype as
‘Irrepresentable’. The classic representations, we may
conclude, are representations of a irrepresentable. What sense
can we make of this extraordinary thought of ‘representing the
irrepresentable’? Or contingency we acknowledge that this is radically a
paradoxical plan of a foolish notion?

Jung is attempting to report a charge between
contents of an comatose group and a essence of consciousness
in terms of a concepts of archetype and archetypal
representation. We suggest, however, that a charge he is
in fact describing is a charge receiving between a normal
or paltry state of alertness (as bifurcated into subsidiary
awareness and intent of attention) and a non-bifurcated or
primordial state of alertness we discussed in Part III. When
Jung says that a archetype is irrepresentable in consciousness
we can know him to meant that knowledge in a non-
bifurcated state can't be represented in normal consciousness
because any display in normal alertness occurs in the
fundamental figure-ground form by trait of a tributary of
consciousness into auxiliary recognition and intent of attention.
Mundane alertness can, however, prove over itself to a non-
bifurcated state by interesting a paradoxical representation, one
in that context and intent are in a charge of
contradiction. A enigmatic illustration is a representation
of an improbable duality, a logically unfit pair. As such,
a paradoxical

-page 172-

representation points over duality– indeed, it competence satisfy the
dissolution of gestalt and problematic a figure-ground distinction.

As Jung mentions in a initial thoroughfare above, a archetypal
representation can be difficult by questioning what he calls the
mandala motif.

we therefore took adult a dream-image or an organisation of the
patient’s, and, with this as a prove of departure, set him
a charge of elaborating or building his topic by giving free
energy to his fantasy. This, according to a individual’s taste
and talent, could be finished in any array of ways, dramatic,
dialectic, visual, acoustic or in a form of dancing,
painting, drawing, or modeling.
The outcome of this technique
was a immeasurable array of difficult designs whose diversity
undetermined me for years, until we was means to commend that in
this routine we was witnessing a extemporaneous phenomenon of
an comatose routine that was merely assisted by the
technical ability of a patient, and to that we after gave
a name “individuation process”. ۱۸۰

He describes a difficult designs referred to in a following
way:

The pell-mell collection of images that during initial confronted me
reduced itself in a march of a work to certain well-
tangible themes and grave elements, that steady themselves
in matching or equivalent form with a many varied
individuals, we mention, as a many distinct characteristics,
pell-mell multiplicity and order; duality; a antithesis of
light and dark, top and lower, right and left; a kinship of
opposites in a third; a quaternity (square, cross);
revolution (circle, sphere); and finally a centrist process
and a radial arrangement that customarily followed some quaternary
system.
Triadic formations, detached from a complexio
oppositorum
in a third, were comparatively singular and formed
critical exceptions that could be explained by special
conditions. The centering process, is, in my experience, the
never-to-be-surpassed consummate of a whole development… ۱۸۱

The archetype is perceptible in a mandala that is characterized by
a settlement of opposites in a third– a Many becomes the
One. The nonbifurcated state is represented in normal
consciousness.

In a following thoroughfare Jung classifies a mandala as a
yantra.

we need contend customarily a few disproportion about a organic significance
of a mandala, as we have discussed this topic several times.

-page 173-

before. Moreover, if we have a small feeling in our
fingertips we can theory from these pictures, embellished with the
biggest friendship though with crude hands, what is the
deeper definition that a patients attempted to put into them and
demonstrate by them. They are yantras in a Indian sense,
instruments of meditation, concentration, and self-immersion,
for a purpose of realizing middle experience, as we have
explained in a Golden Flower.
At a same time they serve
to furnish middle order– that is why, when they seem in a
series, they mostly follow chaotic, jumbled states marked
by dispute and anxiety. They demonstrate a thought of a safe
refuge, of middle settlement and wholeness. ۱۸۲

Again we are presented with a thought of settlement of conflict
and conceptual wholeness. In classifying a mandala as a
yantra, Jung connects it with a Shri Yantra, a ‘yantra of
yantras’ that we have analyzed in Part Three. Our research of
the Shri Yantra is unchanging with a interpretation we are giving
to Jung’s contention of a organic stress of a mandala
and we competence know a Shri Yantra as a model of the
archetypal representation.

Although a concepts of conflict, opposition, and
multiplicity play a partial in Jung’s descriptions of such
representations, a thought of paradox, that played a vital purpose in
our contention of a Shri Yantra, is not brought categorically into
relief by Jung (although it is pragmatic by a thought of
‘representing a irrepresentable’) until Jung mentions


…that pathological analogies of a individuation process
are not a customarily ones. There are devout monuments of quite
another kind, and they are certain illustrations of our
process. Above all we would discuss a koans of Zen Buddhism,
those high paradoxes that light up, as with a peep of
lightning, a complicated interrelations between ego and
self. ۱۸۳

So distant we have been traffic with a several designs and
representations constructed by individuals– a ‘infinitely
variegated’ patterns which, nonetheless, vaunt features
characteristic of a ‘mandala motif’.

-page 174-


But we competence also discuss a obsolete ideas and imaginary themes
which stand adult from time to time in opposite cultures–
representations deliberate to have a some-more or reduction concept appeal.
For these black tend to re-occur in a configurations produced
by patients who have, according to Jung, “only a minimal knowledge
of mythology” ۱۸۴
and they are model classic representations.

Erich Neumann, whose investigate of such black was praised by Jung for
having arrived “at conclusions and insights that are among the
most critical ever to be reached in this field”, ۱۸۵ will be the
primary source of information in a contention of a archetypal
representation in mythology. It is on a basement of his research
that we interpretation that classic representations in mythology
possess a essential underline of paradox.

It is Neumann’s topic that an classic illustration or
‘primordial image’, when it exerts a energy of mindfulness over a
particular individual, achieves a energy to do so by trait of the
stage of ego growth that that sold has reached. The
uroborus, or pitch of “the dragon ravenous itself tail first”
(which Jung initial discussed in tie with alchemy), ۱۸۶
for
example, dominates during a babyish proviso of ego consciousness,
according to Neumann. 
۱۸۷
Some of a other black of which
Neumann speaks are a son-lover connected with a picture of the
Great Mother: “they are loved, slain, buried, and bewailed by her,
and are afterwards reborn by her”, ۱۸۸
the pure birth associated
with a picture of a Hero, ۱۸۹ a picture of a fertile-dead

associated with a Transformation Myth, ۱۹۰ and a mythological
formula expressing a thought of a Hero” “I and a Father are
one”. ۱۹۱ Each picture is radically enigmatic when taken
literally. The act of ravenous necessitates a devourer separate
from a devouree; to slay is to take life

-page 175-

away, not to give birth to that that one slays; a pure is not
impregnant; to be passed is to be deprived of a energy of fertility;
and one does not breed oneself. Of march one can charge a
metaphorical definition to any of these ideas, though a prove is that
when taken literally they consecrate paradoxes.

If, as we have suggested, alertness intrigues itself with
the non-bifurcated or former state by interesting antithesis it
could be approaching that a specific guise a antithesis takes will
indicate an opinion in honour of a non-bifurcated state.
In
the childhood theatre of diseased ego alertness antithesis will have
the outcome of inducing a former undifferentiated state, if
we are to trust Neumann, who speaks of a propensity, during this
stage of development, for a classic picture to ‘knockout’ normal
consciousness and satisfy a lapse to a non-differentiated state. ۱۹۲
As a ego gains strength a enigmatic archetypal
representations will prove a fear of a lapse to the
primordial state (manifest, for instance, as a fear of a Terrible
Mother who gives life by devouring). And in after stages the
return to a non-bifurcated state will once benefit be authorised by
the sold antithesis analogous to that state– the
transformation picture of fertility-in-death.

The non-bifurcated state is represented in normal
consciousness by a enigmatic classic picture and a guise
the antithesis assumes will conform to a theatre of growth and
indicate an opinion in honour of a non-bifurcated state.


…originally a archetype acted on a ego en masse, in
all a undifferentiated plenitude of a enigmatic nature.
This is a arch reason since a ego is over-whelmed, and
alertness disoriented, by a archetype… ۱۹۳

-page 176-

But then, as Neumann puts it,


…consciousness learns to strengthen itself opposite a effect
of a former archetype… ۱۹۴

It does this by treating a enigmatic qualities of the
archetypal display as elements of a dialectical process,
thereby holding adult an opinion towards them that reconciles the
initial paradox.

The antithetical structure of [archetypal representation]
creates unwavering course unfit and eventually leads
to fascination. Consciousness keeps returning to this
content, or to a chairman who embodies it or carries its
projection,and is incompetent to get divided from it. New reactions
are constantly released, alertness finds itself during a loss,
and affective reactions start to appear. All bivalent
essence that concurrently attract and repel act in like
demeanour on a mammal as a whole and recover powerfully
affective reactions, given alertness gives way,
regresses, and obsolete mechanisms take a place. Affective
reactions ensuing from mindfulness are dangerous; they
volume to an advance by a unconscious.

An modernized alertness will therefore separate the
bivalent calm into a thought of discordant qualities.
Before being so split, a calm is not merely good and bad
during once; it is over good and evil, attracting and repelling,
and therefore vitriolic to consciousness. But if there is
a multiplication into good and evil, alertness can afterwards take up
an attitude. It accepts and rejects, orients itself, and thus
gets outward a operation of fascination. This unwavering bias
toward prejudice is reinforced by a rationalizing
routine we have mentioned. ۱۹۵

The acceptance of some of a enigmatic qualities and the
rejection of others, a holding adult of an opinion with a use of
which these qualities can be dialectically resolved, is tantamount
to depotentiating a antithesis by attributing to it a metaphorical
meaning. The thought of a death-which-is-birth, for instance, which
is enigmatic when we take it literally and charge to one and
the same entity both a coming-into-being and a simultaneous
termination of being, turns into a thought of a genocide of one
entity (or passing of one mode of being) bringing about a birth
of another entity (or

-page 177-

the conflict of another mode). Consciousness protects itself against
a lapse to a non-bifurcated state by attenuating a paradoxical
nature of a representations by that a non-differentiated state
gains entry, so to speak, into normal consciousness.

But as alertness becomes inflexible, overly inequitable or
‘one-sided’ to use Neumann’s words, antithesis can be used to break
the reason unreasoning patterns of contexting have over a individual.
Inherent in a difficulty and interspersal techniques Erickson uses
for ‘depotentiating a unwavering set’ of a theme in sequence to
replace it with an choice (see page 166) is a possibility
of a use of antithesis for a conscious re-organization of
personality. These techniques, in elemental respects, resemble
the individuation routine of that Jung speaks, a routine which,
by trait of a prolongation of such classic designs as the
mandala, a new entire of celebrity is to be achieved. Both
can be analyzed in terms of a routine in that alertness is
presented with a antithesis that triggers a altered state in which
consciousness is no longer bifurcated into intent of courtesy and
subsidiary awareness. The altered state, characterized by the
dissolution of gestalt, and in these sold cases prompted by
paradox, allows for a restructuring of patterns of contexting.
For this reason alone, we can know since a mythological
symbols analogous to a after stages of life prove a more
favorable opinion toward a non-bifurcated state than do the
earlier stages, that provide it as antagonistic to a necessary
strengthening of a ego.


All a differentiations and celebrity components that were
built adult during a initial half of life, when alertness was
developing, are now unbuilt. ۱۹۶

-page 178-

This “transformation process” is connected, around a transformation
mythology compared with this theatre of development, with a image
of a ‘fertile-dead’. Speaking of this theatre of development,
Neumann says,


The entire that comes into being as a outcome of the
individuation routine corresponds to a surpassing structural
change, a new pattern of a personality. Whereas in
a initial half of life there was a bent to differentiation
and ever-increasing tragedy during a responsibility of wholeness, the
formation routine tends towards increasing fortitude and a
obscure of tension. ۱۹۷

Among a traditions that permit a lapse to the
primordial togetherness of a non-bifurcated state stands Yoga. Eliade
summarizes a thought to be achieved in a following way.


All this amounts to observant that we are traffic with a
coincidentia oppositorum achieved on all levels of Life and
Consciousness. As a outcome of this kinship of opposites
knowledge of duality is abolished and a unusual world
transcended. ۱۹۸

And vocalization of a undifferentiated state, Eliade says:


…we are traffic with a otherworldly conditions which, being
inconceivable, is voiced by enigmatic or paradoxical
metaphors. ۱۹۹

But we should like to addition Eliade’s contention by pointing
out that a elemental split in normal consciousness
is between figure and ground– it occurs when an intent of
attention is relevated from a whole that stays in subsidiary
awareness. It is this initial tributary of alertness which
produces a subject-object eminence and creates for a subject
his or her ‘phenomenal world’. It is an fugitive duality underlying
everyday knowledge precisely given a knowledge of subsidiary
awareness can't be prisoner in attention, and nonetheless subsidiary
awareness plays a poignant partial in knowledge in influencing
the deployment of attention. It is not surprising, then, that the
traditions that disciple a lapse to

-page 179-

the former non-bifurcated state should occupy paradox, not
merely as a approach of vocalization about that state, though as an instrument
to grasp it. In a research we have given of a Shri Yantra
we described antithesis in terms of a double connect phenomena in which
the subsidiarily gifted context in that an intent of
attention is entertained is exclusive with (or contradicts) the
object. Hence, to severely perform a enigmatic representation
such as a Shri Yantra is to make an unfit direct on
consciousness structured as auxiliary awareness/object of
attention and to insist on arrogance of a former non-
bifurcated state.

Earlier in this paper we quoted a thoroughfare that suggested that
the ‘obscure, enigmatic metaphors’ of a East constituted an
obstacle for a transparent bargain of a insights such metaphors
were dictated to express. If, however, we give Eastern systems the
benefit of doubt, we competence discern not a small obscurity of
expression that final clarification, though an denote that the
transcendental state of alertness that is a primary interest
of such systems is essentially opposite from normal
consciousness. That a disproportion between a dual is a
fundamental one becomes apparent when we recognised of normal
consciousness as auxiliary awareness/object of courtesy and the
transcendental state of alertness as lacking this
characteristic bifurcation. We competence afterwards know a esoteric
pronouncements of a East to simulate both a hostility to use
descriptions that would upset a altered state with normal
consciousness and an try to satisfy a state in doubt or a
facsimile by a use of paradox.

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Footnotes

۱۷۳٫ L. Frey-Rohn, From Freud to Jung, translated by F.E. Engreen
and E.K. Engreen (New York:Dell Publishing,1974) p.119.

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۱۷۴٫ Ibid., p.120.

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۱۷۵٫ Ibid.

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۱۷۶٫ Ibid.

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۱۷۷٫ Ibid., p.121.

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۱۷۸٫ C.G.Jung, On a inlet of a psyche, op.cit., p.123.

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۱۷۹٫ Ibid., p.124.

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۱۸۰٫ Ibid., p.112.

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۱۸۱٫ Ibid., p.113.

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۱۸۲٫ C.G. Jung, Mandala symbolism, translated by R.F.C. Hull
(Princeton:Princeton Univ. Press,1972),p.99.

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۱۸۳٫ C.G. Jung, On a inlet of a psyche, op.cit., p.135.

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۱۸۴٫ Ibid., p.113.

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۱۸۵٫ E. Neumann, The origins and story of consciousness,
translated by R.F.C. Hull (Princeton:Princeton Univ.
Press,1954), p.xiv.

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۱۸۶٫ C.G. Jung, Dreams, op.cit., p.200.

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۱۸۷٫ E. Neumann, op.cit., p.41.

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۱۸۸٫ Ibid., p.46

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۱۸۹٫ Ibid., p.133.

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۱۹۰٫ Ibid., p.225-227.

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۱۹۱٫ Ibid., p.360.

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۱۹۲٫ Ibid., p.329.

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۱۹۳٫ Ibid., p.322.

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۱۹۴٫ Ibid.

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۱۹۵٫ Ibid., p.327.

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۱۹۶٫ Ibid., p.412.

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۱۹۷٫ Ibid., p.416.

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۱۹۸٫ M. Eliade, The dual and a one, op.cit., p.118.

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۱۹۹٫ Ibid., p.121.

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