US7230640B2 – Three

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۱۳ مرداد ۱۳۹۶


۱٫ Field of a Invention

The invention concerns a device for three-dimensional integrity of a sourroundings about a transport vehicle, comprising a stretch sensor that produces a array of dual dimensional stretch profiles, and a information guess territory and a storage territory that preprocesses and store consecutive stretch profiles, and furnish a 3 dimensional picture of a sourroundings from a method of stretch profiles. The invention serve comprises a routine for three-dimensional integrity of a sourroundings about a transport car utilizing such a device.

It is not probable currently to consult a sourroundings around a transport car given there are no suitable vehicle-adapted, high-resolution three-dimensional environment-scanning sensors. Depending on a application, a initial car assistance systems to turn accessible on a marketplace will approaching engage a contain between a fortitude of a illustration information and a stretch of a surveyed area. So, for example, a radar complement for an ACC focus contingency be singular to a few degrees of indicate horizontally, while for a parking assistance device a contemplating of a sourroundings forward of, beside and behind a car with ultrasound allows usually a singular operation and fortitude to be realized. Video formed systems offer a high resolution, however no stretch information.

۲٫ Description of a Related Art

From a margin of robotics infrared scanners are known, that are means of regulating articulated rotating mirrors to collect three-dimensional environmental information. For use in transport vehicles such sensors are however usually suitable for singular purposes, given on one palm a formidable mechanics are not amply strong for a use in use for a many opposite transport applications, and on a other hand, such sensors are comparatively costly overdue to their complexity.

For this reason in a car zone laser scanners are radically employed, that are designed to indicate a skinny hoop (2D) within a 3 dimensional sourroundings and to yield a abyss form of a surveyed sector. In DE 3932 720 A1 a stretch measuring device is described for contactless approval of stretch and relations position of objects. The participation of an intent is rescued by means of a slight bundled infrared lamp and a stretch is energetic by an ultrasound device. U.S. Pat. No. 6,151,539 A1 shows an unconstrained vehicle, that utilizes mixed laser scanners for intent detection. Herein in sold a laser scanner is set adult for monitoring a back sourroundings of a vehicle, in that a sum fanciful showing area of 360° is divided, by not described means, into together overlapping environmental areas of respectively 180° and 30° for a so called almost three-dimensional intent detection.

Schneider (Schneider et al., “Millimeter Wave Imaging of Traffic Scenarios”, Intelligent Vehicles Symposium, Proc. IEEE, pp. 327-332) demonstrates a probability of generating two-dimensional perspectives from three-dimensional information sets, here generally regulating a high-resolution radar system. The intent therein is to systematise vehicles on a basement of their two-dimensional viewpoint and to guard their tracks, as good as to remove a transport corner from a dual dimensional view. A identical routine to be employed in transport vehicles for a approval of a empty pushing space is also famous from a subsequently published request DE 100 49 229 A1.

Systems for constructing three-dimensional environmental information on a basement of two-dimensional abyss form information holding into care a car possess transformation are disclosed in papers U.S. Pat. No. 4,179,216 A1 and U.S. Pat. No. 4,490,038 A1 for a measure of a form of a tyrannise hovel and a defect-free smoothness of railway tracks, and, on a other hand, in U.S. Pat. No. 5,278,423 A1, systems are used in mixed with a targeted focus of pesticides and a integrity of a border of leaflet within plantations. In all these systems a three-dimensional picture of a sourroundings is assembled by a mixed of a method of stretch profiles regulating a information guess unit. In method to establish a spacing of a sold sequentially available profiles to any other, stretch recorders are supposing respectively in a wheels of a car carrying a system.

A device for last a position of an rural car carrying a scanning sensor is described in U.S. Pat. No. 5,809,440 A1. Herein a lane of a car is followed by means of a tellurian positioning complement (GPS). Since a visual sensor used for recording plant expansion however provides no stretch information, a sequencing of a sensor information is means to furnish usually a dual dimensional cartography of a environment.

In organisation with a transport trade scenario, a still complement for last and classifying vehicles flitting a complement is disclosed in U.S. Pat. No. 5,896,190 A1. Herein collected two-dimensional abyss profiles from a laser scanner are sum for producing three-dimensional data. Therein a laser scanner is in a famous bound position above a car alley and monitors an area fibbing thereunder. Vehicles roving by a scanned area are rescued with consecutive scans, from that a complement sequentially extracts abyss profiles. The speed information for rightly reconstructing a relocating 3 dimensional trade intent from a dual dimensional abyss form information is performed by use of dual light strata assembled alone from a laser scanner. Therein a light strata are used in a clarity of a light separator for measuring speed, wherein entrance of an intent in a initial light strata starts a time and entrance of a same intent in a second light strata stops a clock. From a elapsed time and a famous stretch between both light barriers, a speed of a intent can be distributed and therefrom a 3 dimensional picture of a same can be assembled for a method of a flitting vehicle.

The inclination famous in a state of a art utilize, in anxiety to a aspect of a 3 dimensional integrity of a environment, a research of immobile scenarios, such as middle walls of tunnels and a position of tyrannise marks or a condition of a expansion in fields or plantations. The three-dimensional picture of a sourroundings is not used therein in approach tie with actions of a sensor-carrying vehicles, though rather for support functions or after statistical research (determination of a expansion firmness or formulation of required repairs). Also, a device famous from U.S. Pat. No. 5,896,190 A1 is radically evaluated in a statistical scenario, in that a bound indicate of a vehicular highway is scanned or and locally occurring changes in condition (passage of vehicles) is rescued and evaluated.


It is a charge of a invention to yield a new form of device and a new form of routine for receiving three-dimensional environmental information from two-dimensional stretch information.

The charge is solved by a device for three-dimensional integrity of a sourroundings about a transport vehicle, comprising a stretch sensor that produces a array of dual dimensional stretch profiles, and a information guess territory and a storage territory that preprocesses and store consecutive stretch profiles, and furnish a 3 dimensional picture of a sourroundings from a method of stretch profiles. The invention serve comprises a routine for three-dimensional integrity of a sourroundings about a transport car utilizing such a device.

The resourceful device for three-dimensional integrity of a sourroundings of a highway vehicle, in sold for showing of parking spaces, comprises on a one palm a stretch sensor, that produces a dual dimensional stretch form (depth profile), and on a other hand, comprises a information processor and a storage unit, that routine and store consecutive stretch profiles and from a consecutive arrangement of a array of stretch profiles to furnish a three-dimensional picture of a environment. Therein a device also includes a means for last a traversed trail of a transport car between a sold away assembled stretch profiles.

In a horizon of a benefaction application, a judgment of a two-dimensional stretch form or, as a box might be, two-dimensional abyss profile, as supposing by a stretch sensor, is accepted as a point-wise sampled stretch fortitude of a three-dimensional sourroundings in a skinny cut or section.

By this novel settlement of a resourceful theme matter it is finally possible, in contrariety to that that is famous in a state of a art, to yield a complement that is commissioned in a transport car and detects and evaluates to advantage formidable energetic scenarios such as for instance vehicular trade from a viewpoint of a active energetic roving vehicle.


In a following a invention will be described in larger fact on a basement of scholastic embodiments and figures.

FIG. 1 shows a transport vehicle, that samples a space perpendicular to a instruction of transport regulating a laser scanner.

FIG. 2 shows a car lane of a boldly relocating transport car with a ensuing instruction of glimmer of a laser scanner oriented perpendicular to a instruction of travel.

FIG. 3 shows a two-dimensional sampling laser scanner illustration area divided into dual spatial directions.

FIG. 4 shows a parking unfolding contracting a resourceful device.


FIG. 1 shows one instance of a formation of a resourceful device for three-dimensional showing of a sourroundings in a transport car 10. Therein a lamp coverage 20 of a stretch sensor is so oriented, that it scans a area to a side of a vehicle. Thereby, in a illustrated example, a aspect area perpendicular to a instruction of transport of a transport car is scanned by a lamp coverage and still a aspect area is surveyed with prolongation of a two-dimensional stretch (depth) profile. In a march of a transformation of a car 10 a unchanging method of new stretch profiles is assembled from a area adjacent to a vehicle, which, when combined, outcome in a three-dimensional image. In a instance illustrated in FIG. 1 a stretch sensor is integrated in fitting demeanour in a back or fill-in light 30 of a transport car 10. The formation of a stretch sensor in an area of a transport car 10 already assigned by an visual component offers a advantage, that a visual sum sense of a car is not almost altered by a resourceful device. Depending on a preferred focus it is fathomable to residence a stretch sensor in a front, side or back area of a transport car 10. It contingency usually be ensured that a probability is given to illustration a sourroundings to be sampled during an angle that is not together to a instruction of travel. The bony area that a stretch sensor surveys depends on a dictated use of focus and is radically energetic by a place of housing in a car and a settlement of a vehicle.

The probable course of a lamp settlement 20 is however not singular to that perpendicular to a instruction in that a car is traveling, though rather can also be oriented in several other fathomable orientations. In fitting manner, in sold for softened integrity of straight objects (for instance posts, trade signs or transport lamps) a lamp coverage 20 can be slanted relations to a normal craft of a transport surface, preferably by 45°.

The trafficked lane 11 of a energetic relocating transport car 10 with a projection instruction 21 of a lamp trail 20 for a laser scanner oriented perpendicular to a car instruction of trade ensuing from a lane of a transport car 10 is shown for model functions in FIG. 2. The car 10 moves along a lane 12 in a instruction of transport 13 wherein during a several time points tn+5, . . . , tn+9 at sold measuring points 12 abyss profiles are produced. The instruction of glimmer 21 of a stretch sensor, that here is for instance perpendicular to a instruction of transport 13, is shown for any sold indicate in time depending on a course of a car 10 in a many opposite directions. For this reason it is quite fitting when in suitability with a invention a device for 3 dimensional integrity of a sourroundings is supplemented with a means that during slightest determines in dual spatial measure a relations position and course (angular course and/or lean and opinion angle) of a car within a environment. In this demeanour it is favourably possible, in a horizon of a resourceful process, to scold for a transformation of a course of a stretch sensor caused by a possess transformation of a car relations to a sourroundings during a prolongation of a three-dimensional image. In fitting demeanour this relations position can be energetic regulating information from a radar (for instance an visual lidar or millimeter wavelength radar), a camera device with compared picture processor or a navigation system.

In FIG. 3 there is shown a sold resourceful essence of a invention for integrity of a relations position of a transport car 10. Therein a stretch sensor is represented as being so designed, that a partial of a separate light sectors of a stretch sensor are deflected into a opposite spatial area, other than that that is to be energetic for 3 dimensional functions by a public of consecutive stretch profiles. In this resourceful demeanour a stretch sensor utilizes dual almost eccentric lamp patterns 20 and 40. With a lamp settlement 20 a abyss form required for producing a 3 dimensional picture of a sourroundings is produced, while by means of a abyss information performed from a lamp coverage 40 this is used in method to establish a relations position of a transport car 10 relations to a environment. By a integrity of a relations position of a transport car 10 relations to a sourroundings it becomes probable to scold for a energetic transformation of a course of a stretch sensor assembled by a transformation of one’s possess car 10 for a prolongation of a 3 dimensional picture of a environment.

In a quite fitting manner, a deflection of a lamp of a stretch sensor is achieved by a introduction of during slightest one counterpart in a lamp coverage path. It is wholly also fathomable to furnish a lamp deflection with other means or in mixed with other means, such as, for example, lenses or prisms.

The quadratic course attribute between a lamp coverages 20 and 40 shown in FIG. 3 is quite model and is radically usually contingent on a task, a plcae of emitter housing and a geometry of a transport car 10. Also, a showing operation of a dual lamp coverages 20 and 40 is radically singular usually by a sold charge and usually by a sum probable showing operation of a stretch sensor. This rebate is formed on a fact, that a dual lamp paths are assembled by suitable optics from a indeed singular lamp trail of a stretch sensor. Since typically a sum showing operation of during slightest 270° can be presumed, no essential stipulations are to be approaching from this resourceful design.

In an fitting essence of a invention it is conceivable, in sold for rebate of a mechanism energy required for information processing, to yield a means that suppresses a integrity of a relations position of a transport car 10 relations to a environment. Herein it is also fathomable to lift out a integrity of a relations position depending on a settable or tractable speed, or in coherence on a charge for that a 3 dimensional showing of a sourroundings is utilized. Thus it is probable to presume, for example, that in a hunt for a giveaway parking space a vehicular speed is generally reduced and reserve is comparatively not critical, such that an research of a relations position of a transport car 10 can be suppressed.

The resourceful device can be employed quite favourably with a intent of showing of parking spaces. Thereby a power parking spaces adjacent to a transport car 10 are invariably analyzed. For this, a giveaway space is compared, in a horizon of a research of a 3 dimensional sourroundings data, with earthy and energetic measurements of a transport vehicle. The energetic measurements of a transport car are herein accepted to be a those geometric measure of a outdoor area of such a car that are required to make probable a protected energetic chain thereof (for example, a car among other things can't simply park in that it moves perpendicular to a required instruction of travel, though rather, it contingency be guided into a park position by energetic steering and counter-steering, whereby a required space requirement exceeds a earthy outmost measure of a transport vehicle).

In a box that a giveaway space is amply vast for parking a transport car 10, it is fathomable to vigilance this fact to a car user if requested, so that a user can park a car or banish to it a unconstrained parking of a vehicle. In FIG. 4 a parking unfolding utilizing a resourceful device is illustrated. Herein in fitting demeanour a stretch to a highway corner 50 is monitored by a lamp coverage, while a lamp coverage 40 is used for last a position of a car 10 and for monitoring a subdivision from a parked car 51. In quite fitting demeanour it is conceivable, quite for near-range navigation, to incorporate sensor information from environmental sensors 52 and 53 already benefaction in a car 10 for alleviation or as a box might be verifying a parking.

A stretch sensor, as shown in a horizon of a resourceful process, provides in a horizon of a intuiting a stretch form with mixed values depending on a stretch fortitude over a whole bony area for any sampled bony segment, depending on a bony resolution. Therein these values generally conform to a power of a reflected signals and yield in a initial instance information per a participation of an intent within a stretch cell. It is also fathomable in fitting manner, that a resourceful process, in sold for rebate of data, is so designed, that radically in association with a routine described in subsequently published focus DE 100 49 229 A1 for any stretch dungeon within a area totalled by a stretch sensor usually a therein many poignant or stand-out indicate from a sampled values is stored and serve processed. This routine is formed on a consideration, that it is sufficient to commend one intent and to guess a tallness thereof, a accurate figure within this top betterment however being nonessential with honour to a determination of a giveaway space within that a car has to operate. According to this routine a three-dimensional picture of a sourroundings generated in suitability with a invention has a birds-eye viewpoint in that a sold loci of a maximal tallness values are registered. In robotics, such a illustration is also referred to as a 2.5 dimensional imaging of a space. It is fathomable in fitting demeanour to serve quantify this illustration and still among other things to serve revoke a apportion of data, whereby a guess speed is supplementally increased. For this, there can be carried out for instance task-specific quantification steps, that are in sold of high aptitude during a parking routine for transport vehicles (for instance “no object”, “possible collision object”, “not collision object”). An instance of a “possible collision object” during a use of a invention for parking is a trade barrier. The quantification therein could for instance start on a basement of a threshold value comparison.

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