| Harvard Magazine

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۰۱ شهریور ۱۳۹۶

Your teenage daughter gets tip outlines in school, captains a discuss team, and volunteers during a preserve for homeless people. But while pushing a family car, she text-messages her best crony and rear-ends another vehicle.

How can teenagers be so clever, accomplished, and responsible—and forward during a same time? Easily, according to dual physicians during Children’s Hospital Boston and Harvard Medical School (HMS) who have been exploring a singular structure and chemistry of a youth brain. “The teenage mind is not usually an adult mind with fewer miles on it,” says Frances E. Jensen, a highbrow of neurology. “It’s a enigmatic time of development. These are people with really pointy brains, nonetheless they’re not utterly certain what to do with them.”


Research during a past 10 years, powered by record such as organic captivating inflection imaging, has suggested that immature smarts have both fast-growing synapses and sections that sojourn unconnected. This leaves teenagers simply shabby by their sourroundings and some-more disposed to guileless behavior, even but a impact of souped-up hormones and any genetic or family predispositions.

Most teenagers don’t know their mental hardwiring, so Jensen, whose laboratory investigate focuses on newborn-brain injury, and David K. Urion, an associate highbrow of neurology who treats children with cognitive impairments like autism and courtesy necessity disorder, are giving lectures during delegate schools and other expected places. They wish to surprise students, parents, educators, and even associate scientists about these new data, that have wide-ranging implications for how we teach, punish, and medically provide this age group. As Jensen told some 50 seminar attendees during Boston’s Museum of Science in April, “This is a initial era of teenagers that has entrance to this information, and they need to know some of their vulnerabilities.”

Human and animal studies, Jensen and Urion note, have shown that a mind grows and changes ceaselessly in immature people—and that it is usually about 80 percent grown in adolescents. The largest part, a cortex, is divided into lobes that mature from behind to front. The final territory to bond is a frontal lobe, obliged for cognitive processes such as reasoning, planning, and judgment. Normally this mental partnership is not finished until somewhere between ages 25 and 30—much after than these dual neurologists were taught in medical school.

There are also gender differences in mind development. As Urion and Jensen explain, a partial of a mind that processes information expands during childhood and afterwards starts to thin, peaking in girls during roughly 12 to 14 years aged and in boys about dual years later. This suggests that girls and boys might be prepared to catch severe element during opposite stages, and that schools might be blank opportunities to strech them.

Meanwhile, a neural networks that assistance mind cells (neurons) promulgate by chemical signals are swelling in teen brains. Learning takes place during a synapses between neurons, as cells excite or stop one another and rise some-more strong synapses with steady stimulation. This mobile excitement, or “long-term potentiation,” enables children and teenagers to learn languages or low-pitched instruments some-more simply than adults.

On a flip side, this plasticity also creates youth smarts some-more unprotected to outmost stressors, as Jensen and Urion indicate out.

Teen brains, for example, are some-more receptive than their adult counterparts to alcohol-induced toxicity. Jensen highlights an examination in that rodent mind cells were unprotected to alcohol, that blocks certain synaptic activity. When a ethanol was cleared out, a adult cells recovered while a youth cells remained “disabled.” And since studies uncover that pot (cannabinoid) use blocks dungeon signaling in a brain, according to Jensen, “We make a indicate that what we did on a weekend is still with we during that exam on Thursday. You’ve been perplexing to investigate with a self-induced training disability.”

Similarly, even nonetheless there is justification that nap is critical for training and memory, teenagers are notoriously sleep-deprived. Studying right before bedtime can assistance concrete a information underneath review, Jensen notes. So can aerobic exercise, says Urion, bemoaning a stream miss of physical-education opportunities for many American youths.

Teens are also bombarded by information in this electronic age, and multitasking is as slight as chatting with friends on line. But Jensen highlights a new investigate display how feeling overkill can impede undergraduates’ ability to remember words. “It’s truly a dauntless new world. Our brains, evolutionarily, have never been subjected to a volume of cognitive submit that’s entrance during us,” she says. “You can’t tighten down a world. All we can do is teach kids to assistance them conduct this.” For his part, Urion believes programs directed during preventing unsure youth behaviors would be some-more effective if they offering unsentimental strategies for creation in-the-moment decisions, rather than merely lecturing teenagers about a behaviors themselves. (“I have nonetheless to accommodate a profound teen who didn’t know biologically how this transpired,” he says.)

By lifting recognition of this enigmatic duration in mind development, a neurologists wish to assistance immature people cope with their challenges, as good as commend their substantial strengths. 

Article source: http://harvardmagazine.com/2008/09/the-teen-brain.html

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