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“جیمز استنفلد” عکاس امریکایی یکی از مهمترین عکاسانی بود که مقارن با تاج گذاری…
Article source: http://hosele.com/
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
عکس مدل های جدید خالکوبی
هنگامی که در خصوص هنر و تار و پود عکاسی فکر میکنید، فورا متوجه نوردهی (نورپردازی – اکسپوژر – Exposure) خواهید شد. نوردهی یکی از المانهای اساسی است که آنچه در حسگر دوربین یا فیلم عکاسی ذخیره میشود را تعیین خواهد کرد. سه المان قابل تنظیم برای کنترل نوردهی وجود دارند – ISO، دریچه دیافراگم و سرعت شاتر که در ادامه مطلب بیشتر با آن ها آشنا می شوید.
نرخ ایزو حساسیت سنسور نسبت به نور را مشخص میکند و افزایش هر پله از شمارههای ISO (به سمت بالا یا پایین) بیانگر دوبرابر شدن یا نصف شدن میزان حساسیت حسگر به نور خواهد بود.
دریچه دیافراگم (Aperture) کنترل کنندهی دیافراگم دوربین و میزان باز بودن دریچه آن در طول عکس گرفتن و در نتیجه کنترلکنندهی نور ورودی از لنز به صفحه فیلم است. تنظیمات دریچه دیافراگم با عدد f مشخص میشود، که در آن هر پله عدد f بیانگر نصف کردن شدت نور نسبت به عدد قبل است.
سرعت شاتر تعیین کنندهی سرعتی است که پردهی دیافراگم باز و بسته میشود. سرعت شاتر بر مبنای کسر ثانیه اندازهگیری میشود. هر عدد در این مقیاس نیز مشخص کنندهی میزان مشخصی ورود نور یا ممانعت از ورود نور خواهد بود.
هنگامی که این سه المان با هم ترکیب میشوند، عددی معادل میزان نوردهی (EV – Exposure Value) برای هر تنظیم بدست میآید. هر تغییری در این سه المان تاثیر مشخص و قابل اندازهگیری روی واکنش دو المان دیگر و در نتیجه روی فریم فیلم یا سنسور عکس و چگونگی تصویر نهایی خواهد داشت. مثلا با افزایش عدد F (کوچکتر کردن دیافراگم لنز)، میزان نور ورودی به حسگر عکس کمتر خواهد شد، اما عمق میدان (Depth of margin – DOF) نیز به صورت همزمان در تصویر نهایی افزایش خواهد یافت. کاهش سرعت شاتر، روی نحوه ثبت حرکت تاثیر می گذارد، که ممکن است زمینه یا سوژه کمی تار شوند. کاهش دادن سرعت شاتر (باز نگه داشتن دریچه برای مدت بیشتر) منجر به افزایش میزان نور ورودی به حسگر خواهد شد؛ در نتیجه تصویر روشنتری بدست می آید. افزایش ISO، عکاسی در نقاط تاریکتر را مقدور خواهد ساخت اما از طرف دیگر باعث افزایش میزان نویز دیجیتال در عکس میشود. تقریبا ایجاد یک تغییر در یکی از این سه المان و عدم مشاهده تغییرات در جهت برعکس در دو المان دیگر و در نتیجه تغییر نهایی EV غیر ممکن است.
عبارت ISO خود مخفف یک اصطلاح تحت عنوان International Standards Organization یا
سازمان بینالمللی استانداردسازی است. نرخ ISO که از ۲۵ تا ۳۲۰۰ (و حتی بیشتر از آن) متغیر است، بیانگر حساسیت به نور است. هرچقدر این عدد کمتر باشد، حسگر تصویر به نور حساسیت کمتری دارد. هر چه عدد ISO بالاتر باشد (و حساسیت بیشتر شود) سنسور تصویر قویتر کار کرده تا عکس موثری ثبت کند که در نتیجه آن نویزهای دیجیتال (نقطه نقطه های رنگی موجود در سایهها و رنگهای میانی تصویر) بیشتری تولید می شوند. بنابراین نویز دیجیتال چیست؟ هرگونه سیگنال نوری که از سوژه ساطع نشده باشد و در نتیجه، رنگ تصادفی روی تصویر ایجاد کند. مهندسان دوربینهای دیجیتال، سنسورهای تصویر را طوری طراحی کردهاند که در ISOهای پایین (همانند فیلم) عملکرد خوبی داشته باشند که در اکثر دوربینهای دیجیتال این مقدار ISO 100 است، البته برخی از دوربین های دیجیتال حرفه ای، دارای ISO 50 یا حتی ۲۵ نیز هستند.
دریچهی یک لنز میزان بازشدگی دیافراگم است که حجم نور فوکوس شده (متمرکز) عبوری از لنز را نشان میدهد. در f-stop کوچک، مثلا f/2 حجم عظیمی از نور به درون لنز وارد خواهد شد و این اتفاق حتی در کسری از ثانیه نیز رخ خواهد داد؛ اما در f/22 احتمالا دیافراگم در کوچکترین وضعیت خود قرار دارد و حجم نور کمی وارد لنز خواهد شد (حتی با سرعت شاتر های طولانی تر). جالب است بدانید در لنز های زوم با کیفیت، مادامی که عدد f-number ثابت باشد، فاصله کانونی لنز (Focal length) اهمیتی نخواهد داشت. دلیل این امر نیز معادلات ریاضی در خصوص f-number است که در صورت ثابت بودن عدد F، حجم نور عبوری ثابتی را برای لنزهای ۳۵ میلیمتری و ۱۰۰ میلیمتری با سرعت شاتر برابر مثلا ۱/۱۲۵ ثانیه فراهم خواهد کرد. یعنی اندازه دیافراگم متفاوت خواهد بود اما حجم نور عبوری برای است.
سرعت شاتر بر حسب کسری از ثانیه اندازهگیری میشود و بیانگر سرعتی است که پردههای جلوی فیلم عکاسی باز و بسته میشوند. سرعت شاتر کنترل میکند که نور چه مدتی وارد لنز شود و به حسگر تصویر یا فیلم عکاسی برخورد کند. سرعت شاتر شما را قادر میسازد که تصویر دنیا را در کسری از ثانیه ثبت کنید یا سرعت را روی سه یا چهار ثانیه تنظیم کنید و عکس بگیرید (یا پرده تا زمانی که عکاس می خواهد باز باشد و هر وقت خواست آن را ببندد). این قابلیت همچنین شما را قادر میسازد که نحوه ثبت حرکات را نیز کنترل کنید. اگر سرعت شاتر سریعتر از زمینه یا سوژهی عکس باشد، عکس شارپ خواهد شد. و اگر کند تر باشد اشیا مات خواهند شد. به قطرات باران در یک طوفان فکر کنید. این آب با چه سرعتی پایین می ریزد؟ در سرعت شاتر ۱/۳۰ ثانیه قطرهای مشاهده نخواهد شد و تنها سفیدی یکپارچهای از مسیر سقوط نشان میدهد اما اگر با سرعت ۱/۱۲۵ثانیه عکس بگیرید، قطرات معلق در هوا و شمای کلی هر قطره را میتوانید مشاهده کنید.
Auto Bracketing یک تکنیک نوردهی است که در آن نوردهی بهینه با گرفتن عکس با حداقل سه میزان نوردهی مختلف بدست خواهد آمد. این سه تصویر هر کدام یک سوم پله EV با یکدیگر تفاوت خواهند داشت. در نتیجه به صورت خلاصه Auto Bracketing به این صورت است که شما یک مقدار برای EV تنظیم میکنید و دکمه شاتر را فشار می دهید، دوربین تنظیمات لازم را بالا و پایین کرده و عکس ها را می گیرد. سپس شما هر سه عکس (یا در برخی تنظیمات تعداد بیشتری) را مورد بررسی قرار میدهید و بهترین عکس را انتخاب میکنید.در سه تصویر بالا ممکن است شما عکس سمت راست را که نوردهی بیشتر از تعادل داشته (دو درجه)، انتخاب کنید. چراکه آفتاب در حال غروب را بهتر از بقیه نشان می دهد. Bracketing تکنیکی بود که در زمان دوربین های قدیمی که تصاویر را روی فیلم ثبت می کردند محبوب شد و دلیل آن امکانات محدود تصحیح عکس در تاریکخانه بود. بسیاری از عکاسان هنوز نیز این تکنیک را به کار می گیرند تا به میزان نوردهی که نیاز دارند برسند و این صرفه جویی در زمانی است که بعدا برای تصحیح به کار خواهند برد.
در بالا گفتیم که نوردهی صحیح توسط عکاس انتخاب می شود حال به این می پردازیم که نور دهی زیادی (overexposed) و نور دهی نا کافی (underexposed) چه معنایی دارند و چگونه تعریف می شوند. به صورت ساده نوردهی زیادی زمانی است که اطلاعات در هایلایت ها شدیداً ناخوانا هستند. در چنین عکسهایی، با هیچ روشی نمیتوان اطلاعات از دست رفته را در تاریکخانه دیجیتال (مثلا با فتوشاپ) برگرداند. نوردهی کم نیز تقریبا مشابه نوردهی زیادی است با این تفاوت که هیچ اطلاعاتی در سایه ها وجود ندارد. اطلاعاتی که وجود ندارند بعدا هم قابل دریافت نیستند. در عکاسی دیجیتال هنگامی که بخشی از اطلاعات عکس از بین برود دیگر راهی برای بازگرداندن آن وجود ندارد. این موضوع در دنیای عکاسی فتوشیمیایی گذشته که تصاویر روی فیلم ثبت می شدند، چندان صحت ندارد. در ظاهر کردن فیلم (در تضاد با دیجیتال)، این امکان وجود دارد که بشود اطلاعات از دست رفته را بازیابی کرد.
قفل، نوردهی خودکار (Auto bearing lock) یکی از تنظیمات دوربین است. کار آن ثابت نگه داشتن تنظیمات نوردهی ( سرعت شاتر، ISO و اندازه دیافراگم) است. پس اگر دوربین را جا به جا کنیم، سیستم نوردهی خودکار (Auto exposure) این تنظیمات را تغییر نخواهد داد.
یکی از کاربردیترین مزایای عکاسی دیجیتال این است که آزمودن کنترلها و تنظیمات دوربین هزینهای نخواهد داشت. در نتیجه بروید و عکس بگیرید. اگر میخواهید در استفاده از این سه المان مثلث نوردهی کاملا حرفهای شوید، باید تنظیمات را تغییر دهید و ببینید حاصل کار شما چه خواهد بود.
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Nous sommes une équipe multidisciplinaire offrant des services de thérapie individuelle, thérapie de integrate et thérapie familiale. De plus, nous offrons des formations à la psychothérapie et des services de organisation aux professionnels soucieux de parfaire leur arrangement et d’affiner leur pratique.
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تمامی کتابهای موجود در این بسته جامع به زبان اصلی میباشند و اغلب در فرمت PDF بوده و برخی از آنها نیز در فرمتهای DJVU ،CHM و EPUB هستند که برای سهولت کار کاربران نرمافزارهای مرتبط برای نمایش فایلها نیز در این مجموعه گنجانده شده است.
برای آشنایی هرچه بیشتر با این مجموعه و اطلاع از محتوای بسته خریداری شده شما قادر خواهید بود لیست کتابها را از لینک زیر دانلود نموده و محتوای این بسته را پیش از اقدام به خرید با نیازمندیهای خود بسنجید.
این مجموعه در ۳ دی وی دی با بستهبندی زیبا و شکیل درب منزل شما عزیزان، تقدیم خواهد شد و مبلغ آن به مامور پست تحویل داده میشود.
خرید نقدی شامل ده درصد تخفیف بوده و سفارش شما سریعتر و توسط پست پیشتاز ارسال میگردد. در صورت تمایل به استفاده از مزایای خرید نقدی، بصورت پستی سفارش خود را ثبت نمائید تا پس از تماس واحد فروشگاه با شما، هماهنگیهای لازم صورت پذیرد.
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هفده شاهکار نقاشی که سال گذشته توسط سارقان مسلح از موزه شهر ورونا در شمال ایتالیا ربوده شده بود از اوکراین به ایتالیا بازگردانده شد.
این نقاشی ها در ماه مه گذشته توسط نگهبانان مرزی اوکراین کشف شد.
داریو فرانچسینی، وزیر فرهنگ ایتالیا که برای بازگرداندن این شاهکارها به کی یف سفر کرده بود با پترو پوروشنکو، رئیس جمهوری اوکراین دیدار کرد. آقای پوروشنکو در مراسم بازگرداندن این تابلوها گفت سرقت شاهکارهای نقاشی شبیه سرقت بخشی از قلب یک شهر است.
ارزش این ۱۷ شاهکار نقاشی که روز چهارشنبه به موزه هنرهای ش…
مطالب بیشتر: http://persian.euronews.com/2016/12/22/italy-plans-new-art-crime-law-after-ukraine-recovers-stolen-masterpieces
یورونیوز؛ پربیننده ترین شبکه خبری در اروپا
یورونیوز به سیزده زبان در دسترس شماست:https://www.youtube.com/user/euronewsnetwork/channels
به زبان فارسی:
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Article source: http://riazisara.ir/post/53
۱٫ “A Political Nightmare”: The Lehi Ritual Abuse Scare (1985-1988)
Sexual abuse of children in Utah has been a theme of many controversy. Anti-Mormons mostly advise that a statistics on child abuse in Utah uncover that Mormon claims about a healthy conditions of LDS families are tiny propaganda, and some “post-rationalist” Evangelical counter-Mormons even insist that a “evil” inlet of Mormonism and reminiscences of polygamy make child abuse some-more expected in Utah than in any other State of a Union. In fact, a 1988 inhabitant investigate sponsored by a array of sovereign agencies resolved that “as distant as child passionate and earthy abuse is concerned, there is no justification that a conditions in Utah is many opposite from a [rest of the] U.S.” . Contrary to what some divine Mormons competence believe, LDS divinity on a family does not make Utah a protected breakwater opposite child abuse, though anti-Mormons are equally wrong when they contend that Utahns are some-more disposed to child abuse than other Americans. When it comes to Satanic child abuse, a array of accusations finished by children in Utah (as opposite to opposite accusations finished by survivors) seem to be smaller than in many other States. The analogous tiny array of prosecutions opposite adults indicted of Satanic child abuse by children has substantially something to do with a utterly argumentative inlet of a initial Satanic abuse shock in Utah, that took place in Lehi between 1985-1988.
During a Summer of 1985 Mrs. Sheila Bowers of Lehi, Utah, contacted Dr. Barbara Snow, a therapist operative with a Intermountain Sexual Abuse Treatment Center. Bowers was uneasy about her 3 tiny children, who seemed to speak too plainly about sex. Dr. Snow interviewed a children and resolved that they had in fact been intimately abused. Dr. Snow claimed that a children had told her about a perpetrator, a teenage babysitter who was a daughter of Keith Burnham, a reputable Bishop of a Lehi Eight Ward of a Mormon Church. Dr. Snow also asked to speak other Lehi children who had been attended by a same babysitter, and many of a families endangered motionless to comply. As a outcome of these serve interviews, Dr. Snow announced that she had justification that a babysitter and her parents, Bishop Burnham and his mother Shirley, had intimately abused a array of Lehi children. The Burnhams were also indicted of abusing their possess younger children, who were private from their relatives and placed in encourage homes by a State Division of Family Services (weeks later, no justification of abuse was rescued — notwithstanding Dr. Snow’s claims — and they were returned to their home). While many Lehi adults refused to trust a claims opposite a Burnhams, others assimilated Dr. Snow in a parent-therapy group. Alan B. Hadfield and Rex Bowers, both active Mormons in a Eight Ward, emerged as outspoken supporters of Dr. Snow. At their urging, a Utah County Sheriff’s Office and a Utah Attorney General Office began a endless investigation. In a meantime Dr. Snow continued to speak new children, and some-more intolerable revelations came. In Feb 1986 a son of Rex Bowers, in an speak with Dr. Snow, removed instances of passionate seduction by his father. In May both a daughter and son of Alan Hadfield told Dr. Snow that they had been forced by their father to have both anal and verbal sex with him. Believing a allegations, Hadfield’s mother deserted her husband, never to return. Dr. Snow, during this stage, claimed that a children had confessed — usually as in other distinguished cases via a country– that they had been instituted into Satanic cults, and compelled to rite Satan. They had apparently described rituals unequivocally matching to a terrible “Feast of a Beast” that Michelle Smith had remembered and described in her 1980 book. When a military resolved their review in 1987, Dr. Snow had indicted fourty adults — roughly all of them active Mormons in Lehi’s Eight Ward — to be protocol child abusers and members of a tip Satanic cult. Although Snow was publically and vocally corroborated by a Intermountain Sexual Abuse Treatment Center and by Dr. Paul L. Whitehead, public-affairs deputy for a Utah Psychiatric Association, prosecutors motionless to record charges opposite usually one individual, Alan Hadfield.
Both Snow and Whitehead testified opposite Hadfield during a 1987 trial. It was, however, transparent that a sizeable share of open opinion in Utah did not trust a therapists. Some State legislators questioned presumably it was correct for Utah to comment argumentative institutions such as a Intermountain Sexual Abuse Treatment Center. The review was described as “a domestic nightmare” by Utah’s Deputy Attorney General Paul Warner . At trial, it came out that both Wayne Watson, Chief Deputy Utah County Attorney, who had witnessed by a two-way counterpart one of Dr. Snow’s interviews, and Judy Pugh, a co-worker of Dr.Snow during a Intermountain Sexual Abuse Treatment Center, suspicion that Dr.Snow was coaching a children into revelation passionate and Satanic abuses that they had essentially denied. A ten-year aged lady testified that she had attempted to remonstrate Dr.Snow that she had never been abused, though after had burst underneath a vigour of a therapist, swayed that Dr.Snow would not have let her go unless she resolved to credit someone of protocol abuse . Hadfield’s invulnerability contention Dr. Stephen Golding, executive of clinical psychology during a University of Utah, as an consultant declare who labelled Snow’s techniques as “subtly coercive and rarely questionable” . A shaken and confused Hadfield did not assistance his box when he pronounced in Court: “If we did those things, we don’t remember” .
Hadfield was convicted of 4 first-degree depends of sodomy on a child and 3 second-degree depends of passionate abuse of a child by an eight-member jury on Dec 19, 1987. He should have been condemned to a smallest 10 years jail tenure with no probation. However, Utah allows discussion for abusers after 6 months in jail (with a serve probability of work release) if they accept to place themselves in a therapy program. Although many programs would not accept a convicted abuser who, like Hadfield, maintains that he is innocent, Hadfield’s box was rather unique. He was certified for diagnosis and thereby transient a prolonged jail term. Hadfield’s support in Lehi was massive. A convene in his support after a 1987 preference drew 8 hundred persons, and a advantage celebration for his authorised invulnerability captivated around a thousand persons, including State legislators and internal Mormon leaders (one of whom was Bishop Burnham, who during a commencement of a shock had been indicted of passionate abuse by Hadfield himself). While in Salt Lake City Dr.Whitehead argued that such vast support for Hadfield in Lehi merely showed that a city was in fact tranquil by a Satanic child-abuse ring . The press believed, for a many partial that Hadfield was innocent. Reporters became still some-more controversial of Dr. Snow’s methods when they rescued that a therapist, who had altered from Lehi, had subsequently rescued other Satanic cults guilty of extended passionate abuse in Bountiful in 1986 and in a Salt Lake City area in 1988. No charges compared to a specific “Satanic” abuse were filed in Bountiful, and a fourteen months inspect was sensitively forsaken in Salt Lake in Apr 1988 .
The other therapist endangered in a Lehi scare, Dr. Whitehead, wrote a foreword of a book called Paperdolls: Healing from Sexual Abuse in Mormon Neighborhoods, combined in 1992 by twin Salt Lake Valley women regulating a pseudonyms Apr Daniels and Carol Scott, who tell their possess and other stories of passionate abuse . The book used element from a 1987-1988 luckless Snow review in a Salt Lake area, and finished usually flitting references to protocol or Satanic elements in a abuses. The scapegoat of a baby kitten was however described, and a book claimed that in this sold occurrence a daughter and a son-in-law of a Mormon Apostle were involved . In Dec 1991 Sunstone published a notation by Marion B. Smith, before a executive of a Intermountain Sexual Abuse Treatment Center, mentioning “sex rings rescued in Bountiful” (apparently a same rescued by Dr. Snow) and combined that “one aspect of a second purported sex ring was that a daughter and a son-in-law of a ubiquitous management were named as a categorical abusers” . As mentioned earlier, no charges of Satanic abuse were filed in a Bountiful and Salt Lake cases, maybe given military and prosecutors suspicion a controversies who had surrounded a Lehi shock where enough.
One of a sociologists who has adopted a belligerent opinion opposite a credit of all survivors’ and many children’s stories about protocol abuse is Anson D. Shupe. Although a outspoken censor of anti-cult organizations such as a Cult Awareness Network , Shupe is a also a doubter of claims of hit with abnormal beings by founders of eremite movements, including Joseph Smith. In 1991 he wrote a book for a doubter press Prometheus Books that could be ascribed to a “rationalist” physical anti-Mormon wing. In this book, Shupe discusses during length a Lehi incident. His sociological investigate of Lehi’s greeting to a Hadfield box concludes that all is not good in this Zion town, though also claims that “there unequivocally was no justification of a child-sexual abuse ring” and “the hapless law for Hadfield was that he was no some-more expected to be an abuser than were his neighbors”. Blaming “the psychoterapists’ conjecture”, Shupe argues that “in a emanate of a Hadfield trial, horrific possibilities gradually receded to spin unusual improbabilities”. Shupe also admits that nonetheless “LDS Church leaders were positively relieved to see a discuss die”, on a other palm “there is no justification they played any purpose in troublesome serve prosecution. The ‘scandal’ collapsed of a possess weight, not on comment of outward pressure” . Overall, Utah had reacted some-more coldly to claims of passionate abuse by children than other States, equally or some-more influenced during a same years. Utah, however, valid some-more unprotected to claims of past Satanic abuse by MPD patiens and survivors.
۲٫ “The Devil Makes Bad People”: The Baby X Case
In early Nov 1989 in Minidoka County, Idaho, a dismembered and burnt stays of a 4-to-8-weeks-old womanlike Hispanic tot were rescued in a rubbish dump. Forensic experts guarded that “Baby X” — whose temperament was never rescued — had been disembowelled and lame before she was burned. Rumors of a Satanic scapegoat started roughly immediately. In Mar 1990 a 10-year aged boy, “Timothy” (his name was not diminished by a authorities for remoteness reasons), entered therapy for unfortunate dreams of passionate abuse and torture. He began sketch cinema which, nonetheless open to mixed interpretations, suggested that “Timothy” had witnessed Satanic rituals including passionate abuse. “Timothy” told therapists and after military detectives that his use had taken place in Rupert, a Southern Idaho city tighten to where Baby X’s stays had been found. Shortly thereafter, “Timothy” claimed that during a Satanic protocol he had witnessed a scapegoat of an tot who competence good have been “Baby X”. “Timothy’s” recollections were after published in a South Idaho Press and enclosed a striking outline of a Satanic ritual. “They put me on a list with a Bible. — “Timothy” reported — The demon is there. They titillate to a devil. 18 people mount around. The demon creates these people harm me. They harm me so bad. They harm me in a private parts. They have harm me so many times. The demon creates bad people. They have sacrifices. It’s finished in a genuine Bible. The demon is there. 18 people are there. They scapegoat cats. They put them on a list and titillate and scapegoat and give them to a devil. They do this all a time, even in a winter when it’s cold. They scapegoat all animals. They even scapegoat babies. (Where do they get a babies?). From humans. They lay them on this list and give them to a devil. They titillate to him from a genuine Bible. The Bible is on a table. Where do they get a babies, we don’t know. The babies don’t have any cloths on. They usually put them on a list and flattering shortly a demon creates a glow and they are on fire. My mom and father are there, they watch” . Although “Timothy” indicted both his relatives of beinf endangered in a Satanic cult, authorities were demure to record charges. While a race of Minidoka County is essentially Mormon, “Timothy’s” family — described by authorities as “severely dysfunctional” — was compared for a brief duration of time with Jehovah’s Witnesses and “Timothy” was reportedly tender by Witnesses’ novel graphically depicting a Devil and witchcraft .
On Nov 8, 1991, with inhabitant TV networks in attendance, 300 to 500 persons attended a candlelight burial for victims of Satanic protocol abuse, including Baby X, in Rupert. Apparently, “several busloads” of “survivors” and advocates from Salt Lake City came to Rupert for a vigil . In a same month of Nov 1991 a Idaho Attorney General’s bureau took over a review of a case. A remarkable pathologist, Dr. William Brady, re-examined a stays of “Baby X”, and a remarkable psychologist, Dr. Charles W. Gamble of Boise, examined “Timothy”. In 1992 a Attorney General’s Office diminished his report. Dr. Brady reported that, nonetheless he could not tell accurately how Baby X had died, he had guarded over doubt that there was: “1) no justification of twisting with a blade or other pointy instrument, roughly certain to be benefaction had some chairman dismembered a body; 2) teeth outlines on a physique unchanging with repairs by tiny predators such as rats, mice or birds; 3) justification of pneumonia in a infant’s lungs”. The prevalent speculation was that bad Baby X died of pneumonia and her bootleg visitor relatives try to dispose of a physique by pledge cremation, with animal predators after aggressive a infant’s remains. The Attorney General’s news also remarkable that no member of “Timothy”‘s family was in a Rupert area “anywhere nearby a time of a infant’s genocide and disposal”. As for “Timothy” himself, Dr. Gamble resolved that he “had never witnessed a Satanic protocol and (…) competence have invented a story”. Randy Everitt, an questioner operative for a Idaho Attorney General’s Office, told a press that authorities were “fairly good positive that a tiny child didn’t see anything. We trust a child confused what he’s been review [in Jehovah’s Witnesses’ literature], and other folks interpreted that as they wanted” . Although a Attorney General’s Office told a press that a box was not sealed and investigations continued on a probability that “Timothy” had in fact been plant of passionate — though maybe not Satanic — abuse, and contributor Chrostopher Clarke of a South Idaho Press embarked on a personal electioneer arguing that a Satanic cult competence in fact exist in a Rupert area, no charges were eventually filed.
An engaging partial of a Baby X box is a candlelight burial reason on Nov 8, 1991 in Rupert. This partial valid that a network of dignified crusaders compelling a Satanism shock existed in Mormon Country, and that “survivors” from Salt Lake had already shaped a tiny run perplexing to remonstrate a open that their stories and those of a children like “Timothy” were fundamentally a same, equally honourable open belief.
۳٫ “Secret Combinations”: The Mormon Church Investigation
The fact that Satanic protocol abuse, perpetrated by active Mormons, was presumably holding place in Zion could not have been abandoned by a Mormon Church. On May 24, 1989 a LDS Social Services diminished a news on Satanism, followed by another news from a U.S. contention for Utah Brent Ward (an active Mormon) and a serve chit from Bishop Glenn L. Pace, afterwards Second Counselor in a Presiding Bishopric, antiquated Oct 20, 1989. All these papers have never been published. A fourth document, a chit also authored by Bishop Pace and destined to a Strengthening Church Members Committee on Jul 19, 1990, nonetheless remarkable “Do not reproduce”, came into a possession of Evangelical Salt Lake counter-Mormons Jerald and Sandra Tanner in 1991. They doubted a flawlessness of a memo, and even doubted that a “Strengthening a Members Committee” (later to spin famous for reasons unfriendly with Satanism) did in fact exist. They were means to obtain from Pace’s secretary a acknowledgment that a Strengthtening a Members Committee did in fact exist and a news was genuine. In Nov 1991 a Tanners published a memo in their Salt Lake City Messenger, and — after a flawlessness had not been challenged by a LDS Church — they reprinted it in a book published in 1992 underneath a pretension Satanic Ritual Abuse and Mormonism . In a memo, Bishop Pace reported that he has “met with sixty victims”, all members of a Church and many of them adult survivors, a infancy carrying “been diagnosed as carrying mixed celebrity commotion or some other form of dissociative disorder”. In fact a news includes usually flitting references to stories told by children, and relies essentially on MPD and other survivors’ cases. After ritualistic child abuse — Pace stated, echoing a survivors’ standard justification — “the usually shun for a children is to dissociate”: “they will rise a new celebrity to capacitate them to continue several forms of abuse. When a partial is over, a core celebrity is again in control and a sold is not unwavering of what happened. Dissociation also serves a functions of a mystic given a children have no day-to-day memory of a atrocities”. Pace’s finish was that mixed personalities are frankly combined by Satanic cults. Satanist have grown technologies enabling them to save their victims in sequence to make avowal reduction expected to occur. However, Satanic cultists are not wholly successful given after many years, when a children spin adults, it competence start that “something triggers a memories and, consequently, flashbacks and/or nightmares occur”; when therapy follows and a memory “is tapped, it is as uninformed as if it happened yesterday”.
Bishop Pace categorical regard seemed to be a facilities of a Satanic abuse singular to Mormon Country. While in Catholic settings survivors tell of Black Masses, Mormon survivors news that they have been abused within a context of a “black” chronicle of Mormon church ceremonies. One utterly unfortunate effect is, Pace reports, that “many of a victims have had their initial flashbacks while attending a church for a initial time. The mystic along a Wasatch Front uses a doctrine of a Church to their [sic] advantage. For example, a wordiness and gestures are used in a ritualistic rite in a unequivocally degenerate and mostly bloody manner. When a plant goes to a church and hears a accurate words, terrible memories are triggered”. We have recently — Pace went on to contend (and one has to remember that he was saying to a Strengthening a Members Committee) — been uneasy with members of a Church who have talked about a church ceremony. Compared to what is function in a mystic along a Wasatch Front, these are unequivocally teenager infractions. The perpetrators are also vital a twin life. Many are church advise holders”. Pace explicitely asked a survivors not to yield him a names of a perpetrators, though authorised them to explain what Church bureau a Satanists held. “Among others — Pace reported — there are Young Women leaders, Young Men leaders, bishops, a patriarch, a seductiveness president, church workers, and members of a Tabernacle Choir. These accusations are not entrance from people who cruise they famous someone, though from those who have been abused by people they know, in many cases their possess family members”. There was, according to Pace, plenty means for alarm: “Not usually do some of a perpetrators paint a cranky territory of a Mormon culture, though infrequently a abuse has taken place in a possess meetinghouses”. Pace also speculated on a prolongation of a problem: given he has met with 60 victims, “assuming any one comes from a coven of 13, they are articulate about a impasse of 800 or so right here on a Wasatch Front” (the suspicion that all Satanic “covens” have thirteen members — in sequence to ridicule Jesus Christ and a twelve Apostles — comes from survivors’ and anti-Satanist literature; no Satanic Church or transformation famous to scholars and active in a 19th or a 20th century was ever orderly in groups of thirteen, and a unequivocally name “coven” comes from Witchcraft, a opposite materialisation from Satanism). Asking a Strengthening a Members Committee to “excuse me if we am being presumptuous”, Pace resolved his memo with 7 good pages of references to Mormon scriptures, claiming that a latter-day presentation of Satanic protocol abuse had been prophetically foreseen in a Book of Mormon, that “is full with descriptions of these tip ruthless combinations as good as prophecies that they will always be with us”. Pace categorically quoted a Gladianton Robbers, and a anticipation of Mormon 8:27 on “a day when a blood of saints shall cry unto a Lord, given of tip combinations and a works of darkness”. Finally, Pace pronounced that he did not “want to be famous as an alarmist or a left-wing on a issue” and in fact hoped “to take a low form on a subject”. Because of a opposite palm who upheld a memo to a Tanners, this was not to be.
۴٫ “Hocus Pocus”: Therapists and a Governor
According to a essay in Network magazine, “soon after a memo [by Bishop Pace] was combined and diminished to a Strengthening Church Members Committee of a church organization, a Utah Governor’s Commission for Women and Families shaped a subcommittee and charge force to residence issues of protocol (including Satanic) child abuse” . According to an essay in a Deseret News of Sep 8, 1991 — a initial of a four-part array who introduced Utah readers to a survivors’ stories — a subcommittee was shaped “in Feb 1990” (before Pace’s memorandum)  When diminished in 1992 a charge force news settled that a subcommittee “was combined in Mar 1990”. 27 “community leaders” were sitting on a ritual-abuse subcommittee, including former U.S. Attorney Brent Ward (involved, as we mentioned earlier, in a Mormon Church review on Satanism), initial lady Colleen Bangerter and Bishop Pace himself . The primary force (and a co-chair) in a Committee seemed to be Dr. Noemi P. Mattis, a Belgian-born therapist who had perceived a Ph.D. in psychology from Columbia University. Dr. Mattis described herself to a Deseret News in Sep 1991 as “a New York humanist Jew and a quintessential skeptic,” partial of a organisation of people who “don’t even trust in Satan”. She was also referred to as “a Holocaust survivor”.  The other co-chair was Aileen Clyde, a advisor in a LDS Relief Society. The subcommittee seemed to be so pressed with Mormon leaders that it could magnitude be called a physical enterprise; it also enclosed Reverend Richard W. Bauer of a Catholic Community Services and Rabbi Frederick I. Wenger of a Congreation Kol Ami”. As early as 1987, Dr.Mattis was one of Utah therapists attending a MPD yearly conferences in Chicago, and after described a “emotional moment” when a attendees satisfied that a infancy of them, opposite to any other, were discussion stories of Satanic cults (as mentioned earlier, in these years anti-cult activists also attended a Chicago conferences and helped MPD therapists know what a Satanic “cult” competence be like) .
Dr.Mattis’ knowledge with survivors and her faith that their stories were factually loyal were not singular to her; in fact, she represented rather typically one side of a inhabitant controversy. What combined singular facilities to a box was a Mormon environment and a broadside that had surrounded a announcement of Bishop Pace’s trusted chit by a Salt Lake City Messenger of Nov 1991 (in fact diminished in Oct of that same year). Apparently a impasse of Bishop Pace and a fact that a trusted chit had been published by anti-Mormons assembled some-more fad than a prior Deseret News Sep array that had interviewed both skeptics and believers (the latter presumably removing some-more coverage). Immediately following a announcement by a Tanners, between Oct 24 and Oct 25, 1991 both KTVX (Channel 4) and Mormon-owned KSL (Channel 5) reported on Bishop Pace’s request and interviewed survivors of Satanic cult abuse straightforwardly granted by Salt Lake therapists. A survivor told KTVX: “My grandfather was a Bishop and my grandmother was a Relief Society President. My grandparents were a leaders of what was function to me as a child. As a unequivocally tiny child we witnessed my baby hermit being murdered by a cult. Everyone participated in this. we do remember a justification was mostly burnt and, for instance, when we was an adolescent, we was profound and a cult literally aborted my baby and burnt it”. A lady giving “Jody” as her name told KSL that during age 3 she “unknowingly became trapped in a theatre of ritualistic abuse. It lasted 5 years. Twenty years of therapy has triggered her memory of a many iniquitous rituals in that she was forced to participate” including “infant scapegoat and cannibalism — a lot of torture” . On a same Oct 25, 1991 a Deseret News diminished full information on a Mormon Church review whose existence had not formerly been widely known. The Deseret News published a brief matter by a LDS Church Public Affairs Department, saying that “Satanic rite and ritualistic abuse are problems that have been around for centuries and are ubiquitous in scope. While they are, numerically, not a problem of vital proportions among members of a Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, for those who competence be endangered they are serious”. The matter went on quoting from a formerly unpublished notation of Sep 18, 1991 from a First Presidency to Church leaders. The letter, after called a First Presidency’s Statement on Evil Practices and a Occult, reads as follows:
“We spasmodic accept reports from some areas about a activities of people who rivet in ritualistic practices including forms of supposed Satan worship.
We demonstrate a adore and regard to trusting victims who have been subjected to these practices by conspiring organisation and women. We are sensistive to their pang and assure them that assistance is accessible by a forgiveness and adore of a Savior, Jesus Christ.
We counsel all members of a Church not to associate in any proceed with a mystic or those puzzling powers it espouses. Such activities are among a works of dark oral of in a scriptures. They are designed to destroy one’s faith in Christ, and will jeopardise a shelter of those who intentionally foster this wickedness. These things should not be followed as games, be topics in Church meetings, or be delved into in private, personal conversation” .
The First Presidency’s Statement mentioned a “conspiracy”, though — distinct Bishop Pace in his trusted chit — did not take an pithy mount on a survivors’ question. Mormon therapists who did trust in a survivors’ stories felt, however, encouraged. On Nov 10, 1991 Dr. Noemi Mattis seemed on a module Take Two on Channel 2 in Salt Lake. The therapist announced that during smallest 360 victims in a Salt Lake area had been treated for ritualistic abuse by “a sum of 32 therapists” (later, appearing on a same TV station, Dr. Corydon Hammond — a investigate associate during a University of Utah who had been inaugurated boss of a American Society of Clinical Hypnosis — also a member of a Governor’s subcommittee, lifted a array to 366). Questioned by contributor Rod Decker, Dr.Mattis pronounced that “doctors and morticians” are endangered in Utah Satanic cults, and this explains given Satanists have “rather divergent ways of disposing of bodies”, that are never found. Dr.Mattis also steady a story of a supposed “breeders”, by afterwards informed in a inhabitant media coverage of survivors. “There are — Mattis told a TV reporters — a array of people who news carrying given birth to babies who were never purebred quite — babies who were innate in home — in home deliveries and who were afterwards sacrificed, and those babies competence never have had a authorised existence. There are reports of women who have pronounced that they have been breeders — that they have had a array of babies lifted privately for sacrifice” . Although Dr.Mattis did not discuss that military and FBI — notwithstanding endless investigations — have never found a smallest justification of “breeding” practices carrying indeed taken place, and a many famous “breeder”, Laureen Stratford, had been unprotected as a rascal (who had never been profound during a duration of her purported “breeding”) by associate Evangelicals in a Cornerstone magazine , skeptics were not late in manifesting themselves. David Raskin, a highbrow of psychology during a University of Utah, told a Salt Lake Tribune after Dr.Mattis’s Take Two speak that “mass hysteria” was been fomented “in a form of a self-existent immorality called Satanic ritualistic child abuse”. Raskin criticized a Governor’s Task Force arguing that “State supervision has spin a guaranty of those who trust ritualistic child abuse exists notwithstanding a miss of ancillary evidence”. “All this — Raskin resolved — is fantasy” . Raskin was criticized on Nov 18 in an editorial of a same Tribune, that was discreet though not skeptic .
In a meantime a comfortless together growth had occurred in Logan. Michelle Tallmadge, age 23, had committed self-murder after restricted memories of childhood ritualistic abuse had flush in therapy. Michelle had been uneasy by several psychiatric diseases given she was 15, and was diagnosed as pang of MPD. Michelle, an active Mormon, left a note admissing that she “saw several babies drain to genocide after we was forced palm over palm to cut their throat”. “Lord — Michelle wrote — we have some repenting to do. we did many terrible things. we raped tiny children”. Ultimately, a memories were too many for Michelle to bear and she saw self-murder as a usually alternative. Active Mormons, her relatives told a internal press that “unless we align ourselves with God, we will not win” opposite Satanists. “We will not win with Governor’s charge forces. — they pronounced — We will not win with law enforcement. We will not win with open awareness. We contingency align ourselves with God and titillate that this immorality will be finished public” . While therapists argued that Michelle’s unhappy story was a acknowledgment that Satanic protocol abuse was “widespread” in Mormon neighborhoods, skeptics lifted a doubt presumably Michelle’s genocide could not be justification of a dangers endangered in therapy itself. On Jan 18, 1992 Mormon-owned KSL interviewed another survivor, “Jane”, who reported “human sacrifices” and other “horrific things” that had happened in a ravine nearby Kamas, Utah, when she was a child. “Jane” told a TV reporters that “her father and others raped, tortured and killed people in their rite of Satan”. “I know it happened — “Jane” explained — given we was forced to dedicate murder. we committed several sacrifices myself” .
In Mar 1992 Network, a feminist-oriented Salt Lake magazine, published an in-depth essay and interviewed both Utah and inhabitant believers and skeptics. Overall, a indicate of perspective of a skeptics sounded some-more convincing, nonetheless contributor Gode Davis claimed she had not reached final conclusions . Dr.Mattis told Davis that Satanist poise is “as sly as a Mafia — as quite enforced as a Mafia” and that, nonetheless in a initial sessions a Governor’s Task Force enclosed skeptics, in a end, to Dr.Mattis’s satisfaction, believers prevailed. When a news was diminished in Apr 1992 nonetheless antiquated May 1992, it clearly unprotected a indicate of perspective of believers . Ritual abuse, a news claimed, comes from 3 opposite “traditions”: Satanism, “a annulment of Christianity”, in that “members rite a anti-Christ”; Black Magic, that is “a annulment of Witchcraft”; “ceremonial magic”, that is “a annulment of genealogical religion”; all 3 traditions are many dangerous when they take a form of “generational cults”, that retreat whatever determined sacrament they come across, including Mormonism. “Generational” cults in a given area, according to a report, “will ridicule a supposed church organisation in that area, for example, doing ‘Black Masses’ and other distortions of a normal use in Catholic worship”. It is, accordingly, not startling — a charge force resolved — that “in essentially Mormon areas, LDS ceremonies are copied, distorted, and sadistically profaned. Scriptures and other eremite wordings are perverted. Ritual organisation members are subjected to use that ridicule not usually baptism, though matrimony and other ordinances. When those victims are after endangered in a legitimate services of a soft religion, their automatic apprehension is triggered, and a benediction or a matrimony becomes a nightmare”. This, according to a report, constitutes a specific difficulty of “spiritual abuse”, mostly co-existing in Utah with “sexual”, “physical” and “emotional” abuse.
The subcommittee, that enclosed twin LDS ubiquitous authorities, described Mormonism as a “benign religion” and a church ceremonies as “legitimate services” in sequence to make it transparent that members did not share a many vast conclusions of anti-Mormons. The authors of a news were, however, wakeful of a skeptics’ objections and diminished a matter executed in early 1992 by sixty-six Utah therapists, reading as follows: “We, a undersigned mental health professionals, have any listened memories of protocol abuse recounted by some patients, as have therapists opposite a nation. We trust these patients allegations to have basement in fact. We are perturbed by accusations that therapists save their patients or cooperate to emanate a mental health problem where zero existed. We titillate a open officials to take suitable actions to opposite protocol crimes”. The essential doubt “Where is a evidence?” was answered by a news inventory 5 opposite elements:
a) “Independent identification, by victims opposite to any other, of a same perpetrators”;
b) “Reports of recent protocol abuse strikingly matching in their sum to a abuse remembered by adult suvivors whose mishap was perpetrated decades ago“;
c) “Independent notation reports, in many opposite states and in unfamiliar countries, of matching acts of protocol abuse”;
d) Successful charge of cases of child abuse that contains elements of protocol abuse;
e) “Perhaps a many impressive of all, support from mental health professionals via a republic display that patients get good when their memories of protocol abuse are dealt with, eventuality patients who have not responded to years of other therapy” 
All a 5 elements were not singular to Utah and had been mostly mentioned in a inhabitant controvery. Their preference reflected a combination of a charge force, that enclosed mental health and law coercion professionals and eremite and children rights activists, though no sociologists or anthropologists. Significantly, a report’s bibliography enclosed 15 titles, usually one of them combined by a (cautious though not skeptic) sociologist  and all a remaining by presumably mental health professionals – including Michelle Remembers and an essay co-authored by a same Dr. Barbara Snow endangered in a Lehi shock – or journalists, some of them utterly sensational.  Ignored altogether were works by skeptics and by educational scholars of Satanism and a occult. For skeptics, of course, justification (1), (b) and (c) merely proves that therapists via a republic review a same novel and control their trance investigations in a same manner, so predictably receiving a same results. Evidence (d) usually proves that in a elect of child abuse cases (minimal, as we mentioned earlier, with honour to a sum array of cases investigated) perpetrators shock children by references to a Devil and Satanic paraphernalia. The tiny array of “successful prosecutions” does not validate that an ubiquitous swindling exists. Evidence (e) would not remonstrate many of a therapists themselves: in fact it is widely concurred that patients “get well” in a accumulation of cultures when a spirits possessing them are exorcised by eremite specialists (be they a spirits of a ancestors — or of foxes — in Japanese folk religion, or erratic Devils in African witchcraft). Mental health professionals and anthropologists have famous that patients “who have not responded to years of other therapy” by Western doctors in fact “get well” when treated in a some-more culturally informed environment by internal African or Japanese folk exorcists; this – however – has not lead therapists and anthropologists, with unequivocally few exceptions, to trust that forerunner spirits or genealogical Devils literally exist and possess these African or Japanese villagers.  The news also abandoned that, by 1992, another difficulty of academics had entered a controversy: folklorists, specialized in explaining how civic legends and rumors are innate and spread. To folklorists, a fact that a same narratives about Satanic abuse are “strikingly similar” or “identical” via a republic or a universe – usually as legends about a “vanishing hitchiker” are reported equally in California, Italy and Japan – is precisely justification that a stories follow a standard cycle of enlargement of rumors and are not factually true. 
In Apr 1993 Utah Holiday published a serve essay on protocol abuse in Utah, holding plainly a side of a believers. The latter were, during that stage, actively intent in name-calling opposite a skeptics. Dr.Hammond reported that — maybe as a response to a subcommittee news — in 1992 a doubter False Memory Syndrome Foundation had determined a territory in Utah, whose membership was growing. FMSF and other skeptics were, Dr.Hammond claimed, merely “clever propagandists lobbying and doing open family for pedophiles. They rivet in a classical promotion ploy of sinister scholarship, perplexing to seem systematic by selectively quoting usually investigate that appears to support their premise” . Dr.Hammond and his colleagues in a Governor’s charge force had however assembled a “selective” request of their own, relying roughly wholly on stories told by survivors and on a inhabitant anti-Satanist literature. Their typology of protocol abuse cults could not destroy to lift eyebrows among scholars of a occult. The initial category, a Satanists, should embody groups worshiping “the anti-Christ”. However no Anti-Christ rite has seemed in a Church of Satan, a Temple of Set or any other vital Satanist organisation from Catherine La Voisin to a benefaction times. The usually organisation that emphasized references to a Anti-Christ was a Agapé Lodge-Church of Thelema determined in 1942 in California by nationally distinguished rocket scientist John Whiteside (“Jack”) Parsons (1914-1952) with a blessing from England of a afterwards aging Aleister Crowley. In 1948 Parsons ritually altered his name in “Belarion Anti-Christ” and was diminished by Crowley from his enchanting sequence O.T.O. Parsons — who was killed in a blast of his chemical laboratory in 1952 — was not a Satanist though a crowleyan anti-Christian libertarian, and positively his organisation (no longer in existence) is not “typical” of Satanism . The second difficulty of a subcommittee’s report, “black magic”, should be a “reversal of witchcraft”. In fact, it is not always easy to heed “white” from “black” sorcery in Witchcraft, and many groups news their sorcery as “white” usually to find that a same rituals are regardes as “black” by opposition groups in a margin where not many courtesies are squandered between competing organizations. The third difficulty describes “ceremonial magic” as “a annulment of genealogical religion”. The attribute will be regarded as startling by any academician of a occult. It would have seemed not reduction startling to writer William Butler Yeats and Masonic academician Arthur Edward Waite, maybe a twin many distinguished practitioners of rite sorcery in a century, both leaders of a Hermetic Order of a Golden Dawn, in spin a largest complicated classification of protocol magic. Waite, a divine Christian, regarded rite sorcery as a legitimate partial of Christianity . Yeats, nonetheless not as committed to Christianity as Waite, deliberate protocol sorcery a worldly egghead knowledge tighten to law and poetry, and would not have supposed in that clarity his enchanting operations were a “reversal of genealogical religion” . Finally a fourth difficulty of a report, “generational” Satanism, of march usually exists if one believes a survivors’stories.
It appears that in a subcommittee report, as in others widely criticized documents, a array of Utah therapists, with a assistance of some lawyers and a few eremite leaders, had embarked in what could usually be described as pledge story and sociology of a occult, while these twin disciplines are complicated by glorious professionals, whose works have been abandoned by a charge force. When this proceed is taken, weird incidents competence happen. In 1992 a book on Satanism and protocol abuse introduced as erudite and permitted by a American Society of Clinical Hypnosis was published in New York. The categorical paper on a story of Satanism quotes a “Vaughan 1990” source as justification that “in a 1830s” American Masons were behaving Satanic rituals in Charleston, South Carolina. A demeanour during a endnotes confirms that “Vaughan 1990” unequivocally means a 1990 announcement by survivors’ classification Voices in Action of a fake Memoirs of an ex-Palladist by Diana Vaughan, a many sum partial of a barbarous Taxil hoax, whose shade of allegations of Satanic abuse opposite Charleston Freemason Albert Pike (in a 1880s, not in a 1830s, if one follows a Memoirs and Le Diable) apparently still haunts some American therapists .
The partial of a subcommittee news on “black” versions of Mormon church ceremonies seems to be taken verbatim from Bishop Pace’s memo, reduction a references to prophecies of “secret combinations” to come in a Mormon scriptures. In fact, rather than a subcommittee borrowing from Bishop Pace, both papers competence have a common source. In a early 1990s Dr.Mattis gave a array of speeches on a emanate of Satanic protocol abuse. In 1993 she published a paper, co-authored with Elouise M. Bell, a highbrow of English during BYU and a member of a Governor’s Task Force (as good as a former member of a General Board of a LDS Church’s Young Women’s Organization), in a common work on abuse published by Mormon Church-owned Deseret Book Company. Most of this paper is magnitude bizarre and summarizes a arguments of all advocates of a Satanic swindling speculation in a inhabitant controversy. The categorical points of a paper (which summarizes Dr.Mattis’ progressing speeches) are as follows:
a) survivors tell us — and we, as gifted therapists, know that what they contend is loyal — that in their childhood they have been “subjected to passionate activities of bizarre, deviant and intensely unpleasant sorts” by delicately orderly Satanic cults who customarily use “sacrifice of animals (…); a woe and infrequently murder of babies, including in some cases a infants of immature girls compulsory to bear children privately for sacrifice; a woe and infrequently murder of adults; and a systematic ordering of bodies”;
b) survivors of protocol abuse “have been automatic (‘brainwashed’) to disjoin and to rise mixed personalities” by a “prolongued and delicately structured mind control or programming” devised by a Satanic cults in sequence to make formidable or unfit their showing and prosecution;
c) admittedly, no one has been convicted of any vital crime formed on a survivors’ stories. This, however, does not meant that Satanic crimes, including murders, are not committed by Satanists. Bodies are not found given a Satanic cults “include morticians, pharmacists, butchers. These people have entrance to techniques and apparatus useful in expelling justification of a cult crimes”. Second, “more often, those killed are infants born and bred within a cult for that demonstrate purpose” and “not accessible on any open records”. Third, “survivors have blocked a memories of their use and collect them usually in therapy”. They have been astutely “programmed early on to tell enigmatic stories” and for this reason their accounts “rarely binds adult in justice underneath a benefaction manners of evidence” (these rules, a paper implies, should maybe be changed). Fourth, a best “cultists’ protection” is “public disbelief”, actively promoted by doubter historians, mental health professionals and sociologists, some of them maybe hired guns or even compared with a Satanist ring;
d) “If plain justification is so tough to come by, how do we, in fact, know that protocol abuse truly exists? Essentially, it is a accumulative knowledge of many therapists opposite a universe that has led to increasing bargain of protocol abuse”;
e) therapists have also rescued that “cult activities are mostly partial of a multigenerational tradition. That is, sold families have been endangered in protocol activities, children of unbroken generations being indoctrinated and automatic by parents, grandparents, aunts and uncles”.
What is singular in Dr. Mattis’s and Prof. Bell’s paper — with honour to a vast volume of inhabitant and ubiquitous novel on survivors and ritualistic abuse — is a Mormon connection. “Cult members — they news — infrequently reason reputable and even towering positions in a churches in their areas: in a East, they competence be distinguished Catholics or Episcopalians; in a South, active Baptists; and in a West, Mormons with ecclesiastics and auxiliary callings. These important facades competence be designed as ‘fronts’, suspicion to acquire a cultists additional foster with their [Satanic] gods”. But a Satanic cults go over tiny facades, given they “pervert eremite rituals for their possess purposes”. While in Catholic communities a Satanists “do ‘black masses'”, “in Mormon communities, scriptures and other eremite wordings competence be perverted. Latter-day Saint ordinances, such as baptism, marriage, or church ceremonies, competence be mocked or distorted. When victims are after endangered in a authentic services, their automatic apprehension is triggered, and a bidding becomes a nightmare”. Dr. Mattis also trust that “LDS scriptural suggestions” are justification that multigenerational “secret combinations” of Satanists do in fact exist . As it is easy to see, Dr. Mattis’ and Prof. Bell’s paper is unequivocally tighten not usually in arguments though in a unequivocally diction to Bishop Pace’s memo, that in spin parallels a Governor’s charge force report. It is engaging that Dr. Mattis, who in 1991 — as we mentioned progressing — had described herself as “a New York humanistic Jew and a quintessential skeptic” has sealed her name — nonetheless as a co-author with Prof. Bell — to an essay with transparent Mormon scriptural references. If a paper Dr.Mattis co-published with Prof.Bell in 1993 is in fact a mutated chronicle of speeches of a early 1990s, Dr.Mattis — as orator of a organisation of desiring therapists and as a member to a inhabitant Chicago conferences on MPD where, as we mentioned earlier, therapists and anti-cult organizations fake their links in a 1980s — competence be a expected common source for both a Mormom memo and a State report. The latter request was hailed by believers as an act of courage. Skeptics called it, some-more crudely, “hocus pocus” .
What was a impact of a report? Not great, apparently. Before a central release, a eccentric LDS repository Sunstone reported in Nov 1991 that “Utah Governor Norm Bangerter suggested that a state charge force on Women and Families, that enclosed a review on child abuse, should disband” (although he also “budgeted some-more income for investigators to follow adult on [individual] complaints”). Sunstone also reported that — consistently with their conspirational views — “some supporters of a charge force publicly speculated presumably a administrator has been pressured by `influential people’ in a state who are satanists.”  “A orator for a Catholic Diocese of Salt Lake City” told Sunstone that “no one has ever complained to a diocese’s bureau about protocol abuse.” 
۵٫ “Mormon Miscreants”: Anti-Mormons and a Utah Satanism Scare
As we have mentioned, a inhabitant Satanism shock in a United States has divided a physical anti-cult and a eremite counter-cult movements along predicted lines. Secular “rationalist” skeptics and Evangelical “rationalist” counter-cultists (such as those essay in a Christian Research Journal and Christianity Today) have discharged survivors stories as furious fantasies. A skeptic, “rationalist” anti-Mormon like sociologist Anson D. Shup does not trust that a Satanic swindling exists in Utah. The Evangelical counter-Mormon greeting has been reduction predictable. We have mentioned that in a prior discuss about presumably Mormons rite Lucifer in their temples, counter-Mormons had separate along a common lines: a “rationalist” Tanners (who have unequivocally accessible family with a Christian Research Journal) have strongly denied allegations of Satanic rite in a temple, withdrawal to a goofy “post-rationalist” border to urge such furious claims. Not so when it came to a survivors’ stories. The Tanners had their dip — and their problematic newsletter was mentioned by all vital newspapers and TV stations in Utah — when they were initial in edition Bishop Pace’s memo. Although wakeful that some of their friends in a Evangelical counter-cult village do not trust that survivors’ stories in ubiquitous are true, a Tanners this time resolved that Utah survivors — with their stories supposed during face value by comparison Mormon Church officers — were simply too good an event to dispute and embarass a LDS Church to be skeptically dismissed. They wrote that “we differ in a views concerning Satanic protocol abuse” from a Christian Research Institute (and utterly from their friends Bob and Gretchen Passantino). They also explained that “while we do not validate many of Mr. Schnoebelen’s conclusions”, they were eventually not fearful to grant with Schnoebelen and other “post-rationalist” counter-Mormons (no matter how bitterly they had formerly intent in name-calling with them) about a law of Mormon survivors’ stories . While a Tanners maybe merit credits for carrying reacted opposite a sum exaggerations of a twin God Makers movies, on a emanate of Satanic protocol abuse in Utah they seem to have left behind from a “rationalist” to a “post-rationalist” position.
Like other anti-Mormons, a Tanners have been discerning to note that references to “multigenerational” Satanic swindling should have a sold clarification in Utah. While tiny is famous about a ancestors of other survivors via a United States, when a survivors are Mormon Utahns, a fact that they have been victimized in a “multigenerational” family Satanic environment means that their possess ancestors were Satanists. And their ancestors are good known: they are, in fact, a Mormon Utah pioneers. The Tanners, thus, advise that a remote origins of a “multigenerational” Satanic rings in Mormon Country competence lay in a unholy practices of early Utah polygamists, who competence have indulged in marriages between brothers and sisters and other forms of incest. They quote new chronological works by “new Mormon historians” to this effect . This line of suspicion is not singular to a Tanners. A tie between probable issues of incest among polygamous Mormon pioneers and a Satanic cults unprotected by survivors has been quoted in lectures by one Linda Walker, who describes her contention as “genealogy researcher”, and by Walker has found a proceed in a inhabitant survivors’ harangue circuit and literature. Walker claimed as early as 1990 in an speak with a newsletter for a survivor community, Beyond Survival, that she “could document” not usually “ritual abuse” though also “mind control” and “breeding” in Utah dating behind to a times of a initial settlers and involving distinguished Mormon pioneers, including John Taylor and presumably Brigham Young himself. While one wonders presumably Walker had also review a pseudo-Diana Vaughan’s Memoirs, usually republished by a survivors’ organisation in 1990, on a Satanic connectors of John Taylor, she claims that her justification embody a business that “along with inborn diseases, mixed celebrity commotion is also found in incomparable magnitude among polygamous Mormon families”, statistics that “may indicate to presumably a high occurrence of incest, or to protocol abuse, or to both”; and a “startling fact” that among “early Mormon patriarchs” “marriages and deaths seemed to start in a higher-than-random ratio on 3 suspected mystic holidays. Oct 31, Feb 2, and Apr 13” . Walker announces a stirring book where she will explain from what sources accurately she knows that MPD is some-more common in “polygamous Mormon families”. Perhaps she will also explain how a 19th century “Mormon patriarchs” could have entrance — unless,that is, they were in approach hit with a Devil, as Le Diable had already claimed in 1892 — to lists of mystic dates and holidays that flush usually in a 1960s in a context of a mystic reconstruction in California and England.
The Tanners also quote a determined rapist use of blood admission by present-day polygamous cults in Utah and elsewhere, and a perverted passionate ceremonies achieved by a Fundamentalist cult operated by John W. Bryant. They also assume that a second anointment rite — a rite that, for comparison Mormons, followed a common church capacity in a 19th century church, and that apparently has became intensely singular in new times — competence have enclosed passionate protocol practices between father and wife . These arguments are, of course, intensely weak. Polygamy, blood admission in polygamist groups, a second anointing and even incest among early Saints have zero to do with Satanism. Even if some of these practices are rarely controversial from many points of view, people endangered in them certainly had — and, in a box of present-day Fundamentalists, have — no suspicion nor goal of worshiping Satan. On a discordant — even by polygamy or blood admission — their eremite practices are dictated to rite God, maybe in a enigmatic way. Far from being Satanists, even a wilder Fundamentalists intent in blood admission (not to be confused with some-more assuage polygamous groups) would rather cruise that by their deeds they are indeed fighting Satan.
It is not startling that anti-Mormons, including a Tanners, use a Satanism shock in Utah (in itself a partial of a inhabitant Satanism scare) to dispute and embarass a LDS Church. It is, also, not startling that a same dispute between believers (mostly in a mental health profession) and skeptics (mostly in educational settings and among sociologists) on a poignant law of a survivors’ claims, that has been going on during a inhabitant turn in a United States (with ubiquitous connections) for some-more than a decade, has reproduced itself in Utah. What is startling is that a categorical eremite classification in Utah, a Mormon Church, has apparently motionless to align itself with one celebration in a controversy, and has diminished central and semi-official papers proclaiming that survivors should be believed. As sociologist Jeffrey S.Victor has observed, a Mormon Church position is rather unique. Although sold activists and members of a preaching of many denominations have upheld a survivors’ claims, so distant no Church has ventured to take an central stand. As mentioned earlier, lawful voices in a Evangelical community, including Christianity Today, have rather sided with a skeptics. In a Roman Catholic Church, a elect allocated by 4 Vatical Secretariats to inspect “cults” and new eremite movements motionless to hear in a event reason during Creighton University in Omaha, Nebraska on May 10-12, 1991, as a usually consultant on a Satanism scare, a doubter Anson D. Shupe, whose news was tenderly permitted by a commission . The opinion of a Mormon Church is, as Victor remarked, “paradoxical”, given they are “lending lawful credibility” to anti-cult and counter-cult sources who routinely also dispute Mormonism as a “cult” . If a initial LDS Church request (unpublished, though mentioned in Bishop Pace’s memo) dates behind to 1989, it seems that a initial seductiveness of a Church on protocol abuse competence have been connected to a Lehi case, formed on allegations finished by children. The regard of a Mormon Church on a unhappy and widespread materialisation such as child abuse is understandable, nonetheless we have mentioned that child abuse does not seem to be significantly some-more visit in Utah than elsewhere in a United States. Nothing in this paper is dictated to minimize a unequivocally genuine risk of child abuse, nor to advise that Churches should not be endangered during their best in fighting and preventing this tragedy. It is also possible, as some cases outward Utah seem to suggest, that spasmodic abusers shock children by regulating Satanic black and paraphernalia. However, there is no justification of inhabitant or ubiquitous Satanic conspiracies. What is some-more dangerous, looking for such conspiracies competence lead a efforts erroneous from a marker of genuine perpetrators on a box by box basis. It had been suggested that when amicable workers, therapists and law coercion officers spin too endangered in anticipating justification of Satanism, they competence finish adult by creation a invulnerability of a guilty abuser easier (and, sometimes, by prosecuting a innocent) . It is also essential that stories told by children about abuse that occurred in a final few weeks be not confused with stories told by survivors about abuses that they claimed occurred decades ago. The twin narratives go to opposite categories.
The Mormon Church, understandably, became unequivocally endangered when it listened from therapists stories told by survivors about Satanic abuse in specific Mormon settings and “black” versions of a church ceremony. Apparently, however, some Church officers did not cruise that survivors’ stories do not arise in a opening though are socially assembled narratives. One of a streamer educational textbooks on MPD explains that a array of famous MPD patients — believed to be fundamentally frank by a authors — had review a poignant array of books in University and other libraries and seem to have assembled some of their “alter” personalities, maybe unconsciously, formed on what they had read . Satanic stories told by MPD patients and survivors do not seem to be eccentric from their informative context either. Material from early anti-cult novel was mostly used by survivors (which, as mentioned earlier, does not indispensably meant that survivors are consciously lying). Thus in a Fundamentalist anti-Catholic setting, one finds a stories of Edna Moses (“Elaine”), a survivor who told her therapist Dr. Ruth Bailey (who had been barred from practising medicine in a State of Indiana given of malpractice, and had altered her name to Rebecca Brown) that many Catholics, utterly Jesuits, are personally endangered in Satanic cults — nonetheless substantially usually impassioned Fundamentalist audiences would be prepared to trust “Elaine” when she tells a story of carrying been taken by Satan in person, who owns a private jet, to a Vatican, where Pope Paul VI certified to be himself a member of a Satanic cult . ?In anti-Masonic settings, survivors remember tales of Devil rite and protocol abuse in Masonic lodges, where Masons follow a famous “Instruction on Lucifer” combined by Albert Pike on Jul 14, 1889. In 1992 Ann-Marie Germain, herself a survivor, graduated during Southern Illinois University during Carbondale with a Master’s topic on protocol abuse in Masonic settings, that was after used for a territory on Masonry in a book combined by another survivor underneath a pseudonym of Margareth Smith . Apparently, these survivors are not wakeful that Pike’s 1889 “Instruction”, where a famous American Freemason confessed that he worshipped Lucifer, was never combined by Pike. It was a forgery by Léo Taxil, partial of his famous hoax, and Taxil privately certified carrying fake this request in his 1897 confession .
As anti-Catholic Fundamentalist survivors told stories of Satanism in a Vatican, and anti-Masonic survivors mentioned Satanism in a lodges, it is not startling that Utah survivors should have mentioned Satanism in a Mormon temple. While anti-Masonic element from a Taxil hoax and Diana Vaughan flush on survivors’ stories about Masonry, widely accessible anti-Mormon element alleging that Satan rite takes place in a church found a proceed to other survivors’ stories in a Intermountain West. And, while a existence of anti-Masonic survivors of march does not validate that a Diana Vaughan existed and that Albert Pike was a Satanist, Utah survivors’ stories do not consecrate justification that Satan is indeed worshipped in Mormon temples. Both kind of stories are however an denote that a survivors’ knowledge is a socially assembled informative metaphor, a countenance of socio-cultural tensions as good as of sold distress. The conditions is matching to memories of past-life use and of “abductions” aboard UFOs by extraterrestrials mostly told in therapy. In 1980 – a same year when Michelle Remembers was published – therapists in California founded a Association for Past-Life Research and Therapy . Later, some therapists motionless that even UFO abduction stories told by their patients competence be factually true . In a sense, a therapists’ position is easy to understand. They are demure to “re-victimize” their patients by not desiring their stories on Satanic abuse, past lives or supernatural abduction. The “either/or” opinion may, however, be a misunderstanding. It is not required to interpretation that presumably a survivors (from thespian past lives, UFO abductions, or Satanism) are pathological liars or they are remembering poignant incidents. A third probability exists. Survivors competence be expressing their anguishes and needs (that competence infrequently come from unequivocally genuine use of rape or incest) by constructing stories conditioned by a books they have read, a media, a amicable environment (and maybe a therapist’s amicable environment and biases). That this competence be a box is not a new theory. In a final years of a 19th century Geneva psychiatrist Théodore Flournoy (1854-1920) — rarely reputable by Freud — was confronted with a box of his studious Catherine-Elise Muller (1861-1929), whom he sheltered underneath a pseudonym of “Hélène Smith”. Muller told Flournoy clear stories of past lives in India and elsewhere, and of carrying been taken to a Planet Mars by extraterrestrials. Flournoy beheld that Muller’s Indians and extraterrestrials talked and behaved like Swiss of a fin-de-siècle, though during a same time he was certain of his patient’s good faith. He resolved that Muller (who was also a painter) was digest in artistic terms certain problems of her own .
How dedicated scriptures are review competence also be conditioned by amicable settings. When a initial Mormons — and anti-Mormons — review about “secret combinations” in a Book of Mormon, they immediately forked during a controversies of their time about Masonry, and Martin Harris called a Book of Mormon a “anti-Masonick [sic] Bible” . Today, a anxiety to “secret combinations” is some-more simply review as a anticipation of present-day Satanic cults. Finally, Mormon Church authorities usurpation a speculation of “multigenerational” Satanism in Utah apparently did not comprehend that they were opening a doorway to a finish that a “multigenerational” ancestors of benefaction Utahns could usually be a Mormon pioneers and, as a consequence, to furious speculations about a tie between early Mormon polygamy, blood atonement, and Satanism.
Will a Satanism shock continue unabated in Utah for years to come? Will a Mormon Church continue to support therapists who trust that survivors’ stories are factually true? One visit Utah parable is that all in a Beehive State should indispensably be singular and though parallels elsewhere. While it is loyal that a Utah Satanism shock has certain singular features, it is mostly partial of a inhabitant Satanism shock and of a incomparable inhabitant — and now ubiquitous — controversy. As mentioned earlier, doubt about a poignant law of survivors’ stories seems to be some-more and some-more prevalent in educational settings. Apparently even MPD specialists start carrying doubts. Dr. Lawrence Pazder — who mostly started it all with Michelle Remembers and who coined a unequivocally tenure “Satanic protocol abuse” — recently told reporters that maybe Satanic abuse memories are “more an countenance of a low turn of defilement caused by violent family members than tangible accounts of Satanic protocol abuse” . If believers in a poignant law of survivors’s stories will spin marginalized in a mental health contention via United States (as they already are among sociologists and law coercion professionals, notwithstanding a insurgency of a tiny run of “cult cops”),  it is not formidable to envision that a Intermountain West will eventually follow a inhabitant trend. Bishop Pace’s memo and Dr. Noemi Mattis’ papers notwithstanding, a ubiquitous authorities in a Mormon Church do not seem to be so committed to a survivors’ bulletin that a some-more discreet opinion competence not overcome in a future.
At a May 1993 assembly of a Mormon History Association in Lamoni, Iowa, LDS sociologist Armand Mauss remarkable among other evidences of a Mormon “retrenchment” from a 1960s to a 1990s an increasing “susceptibility to fundamentalist `scare’ scenarios.” Mauss – who used “fundamentalist” in a inhabitant clarification of “conservative evangelicals”, as opposite to a Utah clarification of “polygamous crush Mormon groups” – argued that an “indication that [LDS] church leaders, as good as a folk, competence be receptive to fundamentalist shock scenarios can be seen in a faith that a member of a Presiding Bishopric gave a integrate of years ago to stories of eerie child abuse.” Mauss, who does not trust that these stories are factually loyal and rather supports a “general debunking of such satanism stories by amicable scientists”, sees in a church impasse in a Satanism shock justification of “the routine by that folk fundamentalism gets disseminated ceiling into a care echelons and afterwards behind downward to a folk with an lawful aura.” Mauss, on a other hand, does not trust that “folk fundamentalism” reflects a common accord of a ubiquitous authorities, nor of a whole Quorum of a Twelve. The miss in new years of “a full and powerful First Presidency” has, Mauss thinks, finished it unequivocally formidable to rein in a “folk fundamentalist” preferences of sold ubiquitous authorities, though this does not indispensably meant that these preferences are common by a infancy of a brethren.  An denote that discreet voices on a Satanic abuse emanate also exist among ubiquitous authorities came from Apostle Richard G. Scott’s discuss during a General Conference of Apr 1992. Although Elder Scott deplored a “tragic scars of abuse”, he also cautioned opposite “improper recovering approaches,” “leading questions,” and “excessive probing into each notation fact of past experiences”. The LDS Apostle argued that such techniques competence “unwittingly trigger thoughts that are some-more imagination or anticipation than reality. They could lead to defamation of another for acts that were not committed. While expected few in numbers, we know of cases where such therapy has caused good misapplication to a trusting from unwittingly wild accusations that were after proven false. Memory, sold adult memory of childhood experience, is fallible. Remember, fake indictment is also a sin” .
Article source: http://www.cesnur.org/2001/archive/mi_mormons.htm
پاستل شامل رنگدانههای پودری است که به هم چسبیدهاند. این رنگدانهها اساسا همانهایی هستند که برای دیگر مدیومهای نقاشی نیز به کار میروند. طریقه در دست گرفت پاستل مانند مداد است. این ماده یکی از موادی است که تنها یک کاربرد ندارد، به این مفهوم که شما میتوانید برای هر سبک، سوژه و هر نوعی از نقاشی از آن استفاده کنید.
پاستلها در چهار نوع وجود دارند: سخت، نرم، مدادی و روغنی. نرمی و سختی این ماده به میزان چسب مورد استفاده بستگی دارد.
پاستلهای نرم چسب کمتر و رنگدانه بیشتری دارند. آنها معمولا شکل استوانهای دارند. این نوع شکل سنتی پاستل است و بیشتر از انواع دیگر مورد استفاده قرار میگیرد. آنها شامل مقدار زیادی رنگدانه هستند که با حداقل چسب ممکن در کنار هم قرار گرفته اند. شکنندگی و بافت نرم آنها باعث میشود که به خوبی ترکیب شوند. پاستلهای نرم در طیف وسیعتری از رنگ نسبت به دیگر پاستلها موجود هستند.
پاستلهای سخت معمولا مستطیلی و دارای چسب بیشتری هستند. این پاستلها از همان مواد تشکیلدهنده نوع نرم ساخته میشوند با این تفاوت که دارای چسب بیشتر و رنگدانه کمتری هستند. میتوان از پاستل سخت برای طراحی یک نقاشی به طور کامل نیز استفاده کرد، اما معمولا هنرمندان از ترکیب پاستل نرم و سخت استفاده میکنند. هریک از اینها کیفیت متفاوت و درنتیجه اثر متفاوتی دارد. برای مثال پاستل نرم به راحتی روی کاغذ اثر رنگ میگذارد و به آسانی مخلوط میشود در حالی که پاستلهای سخت برای کشیدن جزییات دقیق مناسب هستند.
پاستلها مدادی در چوب محصور شدهاند و باعث میشوند بهم ریختگی کمتر باشد و در عین حال جزییات به خوبی طراحی شوند. آنها به سادگی با پاستلهای نرم و سخت مخلوط میشوند. این نوع پاستل به شکل مداد است و برای طراحی جزییات ریز و دقیق مناسب است.
پاستلهای روغنی برای کشیدن افکتهای نقاشی بسیار مناسب هستند، اما وکس مخصوص آنها باعث میشود هماهنگی با دیگر انواع پاستل نداشته باشند. بوی این پاستلها برای برخی افراد مطبوع نیست و شاید به همین دلیل از استفاده این نوع پرهیز میکنند.
یکی از مهمترین تفاوتهای پاستل روغنی با دیگر انواع پاستل این است که خرد نمیشود و ذرات آن در هوا پخش نمیشوند. در عین حال رنگهایی به روشنی و براقی پاستل نرم ایجاد میکند. همچنین این نوع پاستل از انواع دیگر پایدارتر است و نیازی به تثبیتکننده ندارد. مشکل قابل توجه این پاستل روغنی این است که از آنجایی که هیچ وقت به طور کامل خشک نمیشوند بنابراین انتقال مطمئن نقاشیها بسیار دشوار است.
پاستلهای نرم و روغنی نمایی روغنی و براق به نقاشی میدهند و جلوههای نقاشی را بیشتر نمایان میکنند.
برای طراحی و نقاشی با پاستل، آن را روی سطح زبر میکشید. زبری سطح کمک میکند ذرات پاستل روی کاغذ باقی بماند. سطوح نرم به سختی پاستل را حفظ میکنند. پاستلها به راحتی قابل مخلوط کردن هستند و میتوان با انگشت و یا یک تکه پارچه آنها را ترکیب کرد. بر خلاف بسیاری از روشهای نقاشی در اینجا رنگ روی کاغذ ترکیب میشود نه روی پالت. به همین دلیل ترکیب رنگ در پاستل بسیار حائز اهمیت است.
اگر از پاستل به درستی استفاده کنید بسیار پایدار است و به اندازه دیگر مدیومهای نقاشی دوام دارد. پاستلها هرگز به مرور زمان شکسته، رنگ پریده و یا تیره نمیشوند. اگر به درستی نگهداری و بستهبندی شوند، برای قرنها بدون تغییر باقی میمانند.
نقاشیهای پاستل آثار هنری هستند که در آنها تمام سطح کاغذ پوشیده از پاستل است. به دلیل ترکیبپذیری بینظیر و بافت زیبای پاستل آثار هنری که با این ماده خلق میشوند بسیار چشمگیر و دلپذیر هستند. کار با پاستل بسیار آسان است ولی به سادگی و واضحی دیگر مواد نقاشی نیست. کار با این ماده فواید و مشکلاتی دارد که پیش از انتخاب این ماده باید مورد توجه قرار گیرند.
دلایلی زیادی برای استفاده از پاستل وجود دارد زیرا کار با این ماده از بسیاری جهات لذتبخش است. با پاستل شما یک بافت مخملی نرم و بینظیر خواهید داشت. رنگهای باشکوه و عمیق به آسانی ترکیب میشوند و زمانی که به خوبی مورد استفاده قرار گیرند، شما یک درخشندگی خیرهکننده به دست خواهید آورد. از دیگر مزایای استفاده از پاستل این است که برای کار با این ماده نیاز به ابزار زیادی ندارید.
از مشکلات پاستل این است که ذرات این مدیوم هرگز درجای خود ثابت نمیشوند. مهمترین مسئله استنشاق ذرات آن است. زمانی که پاستل را روی سطح میکشید، ذرات ریز آن در هوا معلق میشوند. بنابراین برای کار با این ماده نیاز به جایی با تهویه مناسب دارید. استفاده از ماسک و تصفیهکنندههای هوا نیز راههای دیگری برای جلوگیری از ورود ذرات به بدن شما است. تنفس این ذرات میتواند مشکلات جدی در سلامتی شما ایجاد کند.
از آنجایی که پاستل روی سطح ثابت نمیشود باید با احتیاط استفاده شود. آنها به راحتی در محیط، انگشتان و لباس شما ایجاد لکه میکنند. استفاده از اسپری تثبیتکننده رنگ، باعث تیرگی و کدری رنگ میشود در عین حال بیشتر تثبت کنندهها سمی هستند و باید در محلی با تهویه مناسب مورد استفاده قرار گیرند. برای دوام این ماده بهترین راه قاب کردن نقاشی با شیشه است.
با اینکه پس از کار با پاستل نقاشی بینظیری خواهید داشت اما فراموش نکنید که تنها زیبایی ملاک کار نیست. پیش از انتخاب، تمام نکات مهم را در نظر بگیرید و با رعایت نکات از نقاشی خود لذت بیشتری ببرید.
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