Patent US20140160119 – Three

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۵ خرداد ۱۳۹۴

This focus is a delay of U.S. obvious focus Ser. No. 11/754,267, filed May 25, 2007, that is incorporated by anxiety herein in a entirety.


The benefaction invention generally relates to displaying imagery, and some-more quite to observation and navigating within breathtaking images, and applications thereof.


Computerized mapping systems traditionally yield a top-down arrangement of a mapping data. Enhancing a mapping complement with street-level imagery presents several interface challenges: such as traffic with navigation within a street-level view, including branch during intersections, and correlating a user’s plcae and course on a map with a user’s plcae and course within a street-level view, both in comprehensive terms (e.g., latitude, longitude, and heading) and relations to landmarks like city streets and intersections. Recently, A9 BlockView (no longer online) and Windows Live Local Technology Preview powered by Microsoft Virtual Earth ( have attempted to yield a serviceable interface to street-level views of a city. A9 BlockView addressed a course problem by flattening imagery into dual strips, so that a user does not have a leisure to demeanour around 360 degrees. Windows Live Local presents a “car” perspective of street-level imagery that is rotated in 90 grade increments by utilizing a automobile avatar on a map view.


The benefaction invention relates to observation and navigating within breathtaking images, and applications thereof. In an embodiment, a scenery spectator is disclosed that facilitates navigation from within a scenery of a larger, structured complement such as a map. The scenery spectator presents a viewport on a apportionment of a breathtaking image, a viewport including a three-dimensional conceal rendered with a breathtaking image. As a course of a viewport within a breathtaking picture changes, a three-dimensional overlay’s course in three-dimensional space also changes as it is rendered with a breathtaking picture in a demeanour that matches a change in course of a viewport. For example, where a breathtaking picture is of street-level imagery, a three-dimensional conceal can contain a three-dimensional illustration of annotations to a map, including three-dimensional illustration of a lines that paint a streets on a map.

Further embodiments, features, and advantages of a benefaction invention, as good as a structure and operation of a several embodiments of a benefaction invention, are described in fact subsequent with anxiety to a concomitant drawings.


Embodiments of a invention are described with anxiety to a concomitant drawings. In a drawings, like anxiety numbers competence prove matching or functionally identical elements.

FIG. 1 is a blueprint of an indication distributed complement suitable for practicing an embodiment.

FIG. 2 is a blueprint illustrating an instance of how a mapping use can be integrated with a scenery viewer, in suitability with an embodiment.

FIG. 3 depicts an instance of a browser display, in suitability with an embodiment.

FIG. 4 is a flowchart illustrating indication estimate achieved by a scenery viewer, in suitability with an embodiment.

FIG. 5 depicts indication Extensible Markup Language (XML) pattern information.

FIG. 6 illustrates an instance of a breathtaking image.

FIGS. 7A, 7B, and 7C illustrate user communication with a scenery spectator viewport.

FIG. 8 is a flowchart of estimate achieved by a renderer, in suitability with an embodiment.

FIGS. 9A, 9B, and 9C illustrate a charge between a surface, a precomputed region, and a viewport.

FIGS. 10A and 10B illustrate a facile instance of generating mutation parameters.

FIG. 11 depicts a scenery that has been warped, in suitability with an essence of a invention.

FIG. 12 depicts an indication mutation formed on bend and illustration for combining a scenery of FIG. 11.

FIG. 13 depicts an indication scenery picture displayed in suitability with an essence of a invention.

FIG. 14 is a blueprint illustrating how to beget coordinates for a user annotation, in suitability with an embodiment.

FIG. 15 is a flowchart of estimate achieved in a era of user assessment coordinates, in suitability with an embodiment.

The benefaction invention is described with anxiety to a concomitant drawings. The sketch in that an component initial appears is typically indicated by a leftmost array or digits in a analogous anxiety number.


The benefaction invention relates to observation and navigating within breathtaking images, and applications thereof. In a minute outline of a invention herein, references to “one embodiment”, “an embodiment”, “an instance embodiment”, etc., prove that a essence described competence embody a sold feature, structure, or characteristic, though any essence competence not indispensably embody a sold feature, structure, or characteristic. Moreover, such phrases are not indispensably referring to a same embodiment. Further, when a sold feature, structure, or evil is described in tie with an embodiment, it is submitted that it is within a believe of one learned in a art to outcome such feature, structure, or evil in tie with other embodiments possibly or not categorically described.

FIG. 1 is a distributed complement suitable for use of an essence of a invention. A customer 110 communicates with one or some-more servers 150, for example, conflicting a network such as a Internet or a internal area network. Client 110 can be a general-purpose mechanism with a processor, internal memory, a display, and one or some-more submit inclination such as a keyboard or a mouse. Alternatively, customer 110 can be a specialized computing device such as, for example, a mobile handset. Server(s) 150, similarly, can be implemented regulating any general-purpose mechanism means of apportionment information to customer 110.

Client 110 executes a scenery spectator 120, a operation of that is offer described herein.

As illustrated by FIG. 1, scenery spectator 120 requests pattern information 130 from server(s) 150. As discussed in offer fact herein, a pattern information includes meta-information about a scenery to be loaded, including information on links within a scenery to other panoramas. In an embodiment, a pattern information is presented in a form such as a Extensible Markup Language (XML). Panorama spectator 120 retrieves manifest resources 140 for a panorama, for example, in a form of breathtaking images or in a form of breathtaking picture tiles. In another embodiment, a manifest resources embody a pattern information in a applicable record format. Panorama spectator 120 presents a manifest illustration on a customer arrangement of a scenery and additional user interface elements, as generated from pattern information 130 and manifest resources 140, as offer described herein. As a user interacts with an submit device to manipulate a manifest illustration of a panorama, scenery spectator 120 updates a manifest illustration and deduction to download additional pattern information and manifest resources as needed.

In an embodiment, scenery spectator 120 can be a standalone application, or it can be executed within a browser 115, such as Mozilla Firefox or Microsoft Internet Explorer. Panorama spectator 120, for example, can be executed as a book within browser 115, as a plug-in within browser 115, or as a module that executes within a browser plug-in, such as a Adobe (Macromedia) Flash plug-in. In an embodiment, scenery spectator 120 is integrated with a mapping service, such as a one described in U.S. Pat. No. 7,158,878, “DIGITAL MAPPING SYSTEM”, that is incorporated by anxiety in a entirety herein.

FIG. 2 illustrates an instance of how a mapping use 210 can be integrated with scenery spectator 120. Mapping use 210 displays a manifest illustration of a map, e.g., as a viewport into a grid of map tiles. Mapping complement 210 is implemented regulating a mixed of markup and scripting elements, e.g., regulating HTML and Javascript. As a viewport is moved, mapping use 210 requests additional map tiles 220 from server(s) 150, presumption a requested map tiles have not already been cached in internal cache memory. Notably, a server(s) that offer map tiles 220 can be a same or conflicting server(s) from a server(s) that offer scenery tiles 140 or a other information concerned herein.

In an embodiment, mapping use 210 can ask that browser 115 ensue to download a module 250 for scenery spectator 120 from server(s) 150 and to instantiate any plug-in required to run module 250. Program 250 competence be a Flash record or some other form of executable content. Panorama spectator 120 executes and operates as described above. Alternatively, pattern information 130 and even scenery tiles 140 can be retrieved by mapping use 210 and upheld to scenery spectator 120. Panorama spectator 120 and mapping use 210 promulgate so as to coordinate a operation of a user interface elements, to concede a user to correlate with possibly scenery spectator 120 or mapping use 210, and to have a change in plcae or course reflected in both.

FIG. 3 is an instance browser arrangement 300 that presents both a mapping use such as mapping use 210 and an integrated scenery spectator such as scenery spectator 120. The mapping use provides a representation 310 entitled “Street View” that, when selected, preferably changes a coming of a map in areas where scenery information is available. For example, in FIG. 3, streets with accessible scenery information are highlighted. This highlighting can be, for example, a colored and/or shadowy outline or overlay, or a change in tone and/or shading. This can be implemented by regulating a clarity picture with a map tile or by directly including a outcome in a map tile served to a mapping service.

The mapping use allows a user to activate a scenery spectator by offer selecting a indicate on a map. When a indicate is comparison by a user, a impression or avatar idol 320 is displayed during a indicate on a map. In an embodiment, a avatar idol includes an indicator of what instruction a avatar idol is facing, that in FIG. 3 is represented as an arrow underneath a avatar icon.

In an embodiment, as a scenery spectator is instantiated by a mapping service, a scenery spectator is presented in a form of viewport 330 embedded in an informational balloon window compared with avatar idol 320. The course of a manifest illustration of a scenery within viewport 330 matches a course of avatar idol 320. As a user manipulates a manifest illustration of a scenery within viewport 330, a scenery spectator informs a mapping use of any changes in course or plcae so that a mapping use can refurbish a course and plcae of avatar idol 320. Likewise, as a user manipulates a course or plcae of avatar idol 320 within a mapping service, a mapping use informs a scenery spectator so that a scenery spectator can refurbish a manifest representation.

In an embodiment, a viewport 330 of a scenery spectator presents a breathtaking picture of a comparison area. The user can click and drag around on a picture to demeanour around 360 degrees. In a instance viewport 330 decorated in FIG. 3, a accumulation of user interface elements are combined to a underlying panorama. These elements embody navigation inputs such as, for example, wizz and panning controls (e.g., navigation buttons) on a left side of a viewport and annotations in a form of lines/bars, arrows, and content that are supposing directly in a scenery itself. The annotations are rendered in a 3 dimensional demeanour that roughly matches a 3 dimensional stage decorated in a panorama.

In FIG. 3, for example, a lines/bars in viewport 330 conform to a streets decorated in a analogous map and can even be rendered in a same tone as a streets decorated in a map. The arrows are selectable by a user (by clicking or by boring along a travel line), one going in any instruction that there is another scenery available. These concede a user to navigate adult and down a travel (i.e., to change a vantage indicate from that a travel is viewed). As a user looks around 360 degrees, a lines and arrows uniformly lane a underlying imagery so that a lines sojourn on tip of a underlying streets, and so that a arrows are always manifest on a screen. This allows a user to navigate along a travel while looking loyal ahead, or while looking to a side of a storefront.

When a user clicks on an arrow to navigate within a viewport, a zooming cross-fade outcome and other manifest cues give a user a clarity of movement. When a user arrives during an intersection of dual streets, there is one immature line and dual arrows for any street. All of these are manifest during a same time, and all are labeled, so that a user knows a stream plcae and can ensue in any direction. This technique can straightforwardly scale to accommodate formidable intersections with some-more than 4 directions. When a user reaches a “dead end” where a highway continues though no offer imagery is available, there is customarily one arrow on a travel indicating a instruction in that a user can navigate. In a other direction, a representation and outline embedded in a picture can be presented to surprise a user that imagery is not accessible in this direction.

The user interface is not limited to navigating along a line to travel down a travel and can be straightforwardly extended to concede users to wandering from a line elements when useful: for example, to cranky over to a conflicting side of a travel to get a closer demeanour during something. Moreover, there are environments within a city where a user competence be approaching to enterprise to snap off of a travel and navigate openly within an adjacent area, for example, a park, plaza, selling area, or other pedestrian-friendly open place. The interface can be straightforwardly extended with “free mutation zones” to yield this functionality. It should also be remarkable that nonetheless a user interface is presented in a context of navigation between dissimilar street-level panoramas, it could equally good be used to concede a user to navigate by a some-more continual set of breathtaking data, such that navigating along a travel would be as well-spoken as video.

The operation and doing of a user interface elements are described in offer fact below.

FIG. 4 is an indication flowchart of estimate achieved by a scenery spectator such as, for example, scenery spectator 120, in suitability with an essence of a invention.

At step 402, a scenery spectator receives an identifier for a initial scenery to be presented and several viewport parameters, such as a distance of a viewport and a course to be noticed within a panorama. This information can be upheld to a scenery spectator from a mapping service, e.g., by regulating Flashvars or ExternalInterface between a Flash plug-in and a Javascript in a mapping service.

At step 404, a scenery spectator uses a scenery identifier to ask pattern information from a server (e.g., an XML file). FIG. 5 depicts indication XML pattern information 500 and is discussed in offer fact below. The XML is parsed, and a information is installed into several information structures for use by a scenery viewer. In an embodiment, a XML includes information for a scenery spectator such as information properties and projection properties of a stream panorama, and information on annotations/links within a panorama, including links to other panoramas.

At step 406, a scenery spectator requests a manifest resources for a scenery and stores a perceived manifest assets, for example, in internal memory/storage. In an embodiment, a scenery spectator can say a cache of manifest resources and extent bandwidth use to retrieval of manifest resources that are not in a cache. FIG. 6 illustrates an instance of an initial breathtaking picture 600. The finish breathtaking picture 600 can be retrieved by a scenery viewer, or breathtaking picture 600 can be divided into mixed scenery picture tiles and a tiles requested customarily as indispensable by a scenery viewer.

At step 408, a scenery spectator processes a pattern information and a manifest resources to ready for digest a manifest illustration of a scenery in a viewport during step 410. With courtesy to a manifest assets, a scenery spectator can arrange a scenery picture tiles into a apportionment of a finish breathtaking picture that overlaps with a viewport. The scenery spectator can benefaction a breathtaking picture as a prosaic aspect or as a texture-mapped 3 dimensional aspect such as, for example, a cylinder or a sphere, as offer discussed herein. With courtesy to a annotations conceal presented in a viewport, a scenery spectator uses a pattern information to discriminate a shapes and locations for these several elements such as, for example, a lines/bars and a arrows presented in a viewport.

In an embodiment, a polygons/shapes are modeled in a three-dimensional space that corresponds to a space decorated in a panorama. These polygons/shapes can be modeled, for example, regulating a pinhole camera indication (e.g., a focal length can be generated by augmenting a tallness of a viewport by a consistent relations abyss of a core of rotation). The polygons/shapes of a annotations conceal change their course in a three-dimensional space in a demeanour that matches a change in course of a viewport. In one embodiment, a polygons/shapes are rotated by an angle equal to a disproportion between a stream course of a user’s point-of-view in a scenery and a instruction of a annotation, as specified in a pattern information. The polygons/shapes can be offer remade around conflicting spatial axes in sequence to take into comment non-flat panoramas, as offer described herein.

At step 410, a manifest illustration of a scenery in a viewport is rendered.

At step 412, a scenery spectator receives and manages input, for example, by capturing submit events such as rodent and keyboard events. The scenery viewer, for example, detects possibly a user has panned a viewport (e.g., by boring a rodent or by selecting a vessel control button), has comparison to wizz (e.g., by clicking on a scenery or by relocating a wizz slider control on a left of a viewport with a mouse) or has comparison a couple to another scenery (e.g., by clicking on an arrow with a mouse).

At step 420, a integrity is done per possibly a user has panned a viewport. If a user has panned a viewport, control transfers to step 422. If a user has not panned a viewport, control transfers to step 430.

At step 422, a scenery spectator determines possibly a viewport will overlie with any scenery picture tiles that will need to be retrieved from possibly a server or a cache.

At step 424, a scenery spectator executes a required computations for permitting a viewport rightly to be rendered in a conflicting orientation, as offer described in fact herein.

At step 426, a scenery spectator notifies a mapping use of a new course comparison by a user so that a mapping use can refurbish a avatar icon’s confronting indicator. The scenery spectator re-computes a shapes and locations for a viewport elements and renders a viewport. To illustrate this point, cruise FIG. 7A that depicts a scenery spectator viewport from FIG. 3. FIG. 7B shows a outcome after a user has comparison to vessel a scenery to a left. Note that a lines/bars that conform to a roads decorated in a scenery change their course as a scenery spectator changes a course of a panorama.

At step 430, a integrity is done per possibly a user has zoomed a viewport. If a user has zoomed a viewport, control transfers to step 432. If a user has not zoomed a viewport, control transfers to step 440.

At step 432, a scenery spectator determines, for example, possibly to ask new aloft fortitude scenery picture tiles from a server (or from cache), or possibly to implement existent tiles during a conflicting close-up resolution, for example, where no such aloft fortitude tiles exist.

At step 434, a viewport parameters are altered to copy a conflicting wizz level. A transition can be supposing between a wizz levels so as to give a coming of actively zooming into a subsequent wizz turn of a panorama. FIG. 7C shows a outcome after a user has comparison to wizz in on a underline in FIG. 7A.

At step 440, a integrity is done per possibly a user has comparison a couple to another panorama. If a user has comparison a couple to another panorama, control transfers to step 442. If a user has not comparison a couple to another panorama, control transfers to step 412.

At step 442, a scenery spectator deduction to start a routine of transitioning between a strange scenery and a new panorama. The scenery spectator can, for example, wizz a strange scenery and perform a cross-fade to a new scenery to give a user a clarity of movement. Alternatively, a scenery spectator can play an tangible video transition between a dual panoramas.

At step 444, a scenery spectator notifies a mapping use of a new plcae comparison by a user so that a mapping use can refurbish a avatar icon’s plcae and can corkscrew a map accordingly.

In embodiments, a scenery spectator can be implemented regulating any fitting programming denunciation or character of programming. For example, a scenery spectator can be implemented regulating object-oriented programming with apart classes designated to hoop a XML pattern information, a annotations, a hardness generation, a tile management, and a filigree generation.

FIG. 5 sets onward indication XML pattern information 500 (e.g., metadata).

As illustrated by a instance shown in FIG. 5, a schema for a pattern information is orderly into “data_properties”, “projection_properties”, and “annotation_properties”.

The branch Data_Properties contains attributes such as “pano_id” (e.g., a singular identifier for a panorama), “image_width” and “image_height” (e.g., measure of a breathtaking picture before being separate into tiles), “tile_width” and “tile_height” (e.g., measure of a tiles), “lat” and “lng” (e.g., coordinates of a stream panorama), and “num_zoom_levels” (e.g., a array of wizz levels that a user will be means to perspective in a scenery viewer). This branch also contains elements such as “text” (e.g., that can be used to paint a travel name of a stream panorama), “copyright” (e.g., copyright information), and “street_range” (e.g., a operation of numbers in a given street).

The branch Projection_properties contains attributes such as “Pano_yaw_deg” (e.g., course of a car that prisoner a images that generated a breathtaking image), “tilt_yaw_deg” and “tilt_pitch_deg” (e.g., a bend and illustration of a line of top slope which, as offer described herein, is useful for traffic with panoramas with sloped features), and “vertical_scale” (e.g., fragment of a picture along a y-axis that is manifest during a revoke wizz level).

The branch Annotation_properties contains attributes such as “horizon_height_fraction” (e.g., loyal position (height) of a horizon, voiced as a fragment of a manifest strip, that can be practiced to maximize a fit between a annotations and a imagery of a tiles) and “annotation_height_fraction” (e.g., loyal position (height) of a devise containing a annotations, voiced as a fragment of a manifest strip). This branch also includes a “pano_link” branch that describes properties of couple black that concede a user to navigate to a adjacent scenery or to another compared document. The “link” branch includes “link_text” (e.g., outline of a alighting panorama) as an component and includes a following as attributes: “yaw_deg” (e.g., instruction that a couple is indicating to), “pano_id” (e.g., identifier to related panorama), and “road_argb” (e.g., an charge of a road, such as a tone of a highway on a map) (not shown). The branch can also embody a “floating_text” organisation or component that identifies capricious facilities in a scenery and could also yield for an capricious link, for instance to a internal information repository or a website (not shown).

It should be remarkable that a above schema for a pattern information is merely scholastic and can be organised in any of a array of fitting ways, including regulating techniques that do not rest on XML.

FIG. 8 is a flowchart of estimate achieved by a renderer in suitability with an essence of a invention.

At step 802, a renderer precomputes a pre-image of a viewport by a behind transform. This defines a apportionment of a surface, that is referred to herein as a “precomputed region”. FIG. 9A illustrates this in a context of a cylindrical aspect 900 with a plane viewport 920, that defines a precomputed segment 910 by a behind transformation. It should be remarkable that a viewport does not have to be plane and that a technique works for discretized cylinders (based on a mesh) or for continual voxel-to-pixel mappings. For example, a filigree can be tangible on a viewport with a analogous filigree on a cylinder. These meshes do not have to be uniform, and are images of one another as tangible by a brazen or behind mappings. The filigree on a cylinder will typically customarily cover a apportionment of a cylinder. In a box of a continual transformation, a pre-image of a viewport would conclude a continual segment of a cylinder.

At step 804, a renderer precomputes a transform, that maps any pixel from a precomputed segment to a pixel in a viewport. In a sense, it is insincere that a cylinder is station still in space. Instead of attaching a hardness picture to a changing cylinder, it is insincere that a hardness will “slide” on a cylinder.

At step 806, a renderer translates an image/texture in response to a user input.

At step 808, a renderer determines that apportionment of a image/texture that intersects a precomputed segment of a surface. This defines a set of pixels that need to be rendered in a viewport. If a user has altered a indicate of perspective recently, afterwards this needs to be updated. More precisely, any panning to a left or right of a viewport can be straightforwardly achieved by translating a hardness in a analogous direction, during step 806, thereby generating a conflicting intersection with a precomputed region. Likewise, any panning adult or down is achieved by translating a hardness along these directions. Any capricious instruction of panning is achieved by simply translating a hardness in a analogous direction. Each time, a new intersection with a precomputed segment is generated. This is illustrated in FIGS. 9B and 9C, where 950 represents a precomputed segment and 960 represents a image/texture.

At step 810, a precomputed renovate is practical to a apportionment of image/texture that intersects with a precomputed region.

Finally, during step 812, a remade imagery is rendered into a viewport.

In an embodiment, a renderer utilizes properties of plane projections to speed adult a digest of a breathtaking images. If a aspect like a cylinder is noticed as infinite, afterwards it is a organisation enclosed G with a healthy operations (e.g., interpretation along axis, and revolution around axis). Likewise, a texture, if noticed as infinite, is also a organisation H enclosed with translations in a plane. It turns out that there is a authorized homomorphism between G and H. In other words, a revolution of a cylinder around a pivot is comparable to a interpretation of a texture, for example, in a x-direction. A interpretation of a cylinder along a pivot is comparable to a interpretation of a texture, for example, in a y-direction. This allows one to pre-compute all projection parameters in allege and to copy a change of outlook as a interpretation of a texture. FIG. 10A and 10B illustrate an instance of how to discriminate projection parameters from a shade space to a hardness space. As illustrated by FIGS. 10A and 10B:

    • (۱) If a indicate M on shade 1020 has coordinates (x, y), afterwards in space it has coordinates (x, y, R), where R is a radius of a cylinder 1010.
    • (۲) In this case,


and a indicate P has, in a hardness space, a following coordinates:


A energetic hardness formed on a stream wizz turn can be generated and positioned in a picture space. This hardness changes when a user changes a point-of-view (e.g., by zooming or panning). This hardness can be achieved by concatenating tiles from a tile pyramid during a suitable turn and scale. If some tiles are missing, one can tumble behind on a tile during a primogenitor turn in a tile pyramid. The hardness is modeled as being mapped over a cylinder. A projection is achieved over a shade space. This nonlinear projection can be approximated as a piecewise affine transformation. More precisely, a cylinder and shade spaces can be discretized regulating a triangular mesh. Each triangle can be rendered by linearly (or rather, affinely) mapping a block of a hardness over it. This is well-defined as an affine renovate in a dual dimensional craft given it is singly dynamic by a movement on 3 points (hence, a use of triangles). The filigree can be done uniform in a shade space (and not in a hardness space). The shade filigree is always a same regardless of a wizz level. Different hardness meshes can be used depending on a wizz level. For any triangle, a hardness filigree corresponds to a singular triangle in a shade filigree and a singular (affine) mutation matrix. Such a pattern can be pre-computed as a product of a shade pattern and (the opposite of) a hardness matrix.

When a user pans, all a renderer needs to do is adjust and/or modernise a texture. This is fast, since it consists of memory copies. Copying vast chunks of pixels is customarily rarely optimized in several programming languages.

In an embodiment, zooming in consists of dividing both plane and loyal fields of prophesy by dual and regulating a subsequent wizz turn to beget a texture. When a user zooms in/out, a scenery spectator can pre-cache a few bitmap images to make a animation smooth. As distant as a projection itself, one can use a several sets of mutation matrices during constituent wizz levels. At non-integral wizz levels, one can linearly introduce a mutation matrices (still fast) between a prior wizz turn and a subsequent one.

In a box where pixels are insincere to be square, they conform to comparable plain angles. The facile margin of prophesy of a given pixel is a same in a plane and a loyal directions. This enables a trade-off to be made. For example, one can select accurately to safety loyal lines, though this will outcome in aloft exaggeration on a side. Alternatively, one can confirm to have loyal lines turn a bit curvy, and thereby revoke a volume of distortion. In an embodiment, a tallness of a strange picture is scaled to that of a viewport. Because a pixels are square, a ratio of a breadth over tallness of a viewport determines a plane margin of vision.

In a box of a globe rather than a cylinder, a assumptions above are no longer true. Accordingly, a above technique alone can't copy a loyal vessel up/down, since all that is achieved is a pierce along a cylinder’s pivot with a prophesy matrix perpendicular to this axis. Nevertheless, a suit of a loyal vessel up/down can be unnatural by pre-computing a array of transforms and linearly interpolating between a transforms.

In an embodiment, a scenery spectator is configured to hoop non-flat panoramas. Not all panoramas etch prosaic and plane features, e.g., cruise many of a streets of San Francisco. Cameras mounted on a vehicle, for example, used to constraint panoramas are together to a ground. Thus, roving on a high slip can outcome in misoriented pictures. Accordingly, in such situations, it can be fitting to diverge a scenery so as to safeguard that loyal buildings in a genuine universe sojourn loyal in a hardness space. FIG. 11 depicts an instance of how a scenery 1100 can be so warped. As illustrated by FIG. 12, a instance roughly follows a periodic duty that can be used to beam a chain of a viewport as good as a era of a annotations in a demeanour that takes a slope of a scenery into account.

As remarkable herein, a pattern information can embody projection properties such as a bend and a illustration of a top slope in a panorama. As illustrated by FIG. 12, a scenery spectator can use a bend and illustration of a instruction of a steepest slope to constrain a viewport to a sinusoidal frame of a mangled panorama. The digest of a assessment elements in a viewport also can be mutated to take into comment a bend and illustration information of a slope of a panorama. The spatial course of a lines/bars and arrows can be remade formed on a bend and illustration information or, alternatively, can be estimated formed on a relations bend of a assessment and a bend of a steepest slope. FIG. 13 illustrates a outcome of such estimate of pattern information on a slope of a panorama. The scenery rightly places a loyal buildings in a breathtaking picture on a steeply-sloped street. Moreover, a line/bar (e.g., travel line metadata) depicting a highway is slanted during an angle that roughly matches a slope of a street.

In an embodiment, a scenery spectator also is means to promote user annotations to a scenery image. User annotations to panoramas paint a plea with honour to how to anxiety an assessment in three-dimensional space.

FIGS. 14 and 15 illustrate an essence that addresses user annotations in three-dimensional space. The estimate illustrated in FIG. 15 can start during a scenery spectator (or a mapping service), during a server, or a mixed of a two.

Referring to FIG. 15, during step 1502, a user inputs an assessment with honour to one panorama. The scenery spectator can accept a user submit in any of a array of conflicting ways, including by receiving a click eventuality on a mark on a scenery that a user desires to annotate. The two-dimensional plcae of a assessment on a scenery is available in some fitting coordinate system, e.g., by plcae on a scenery picture or by bend and illustration coordinates.

At step 1504, a user navigates to another circuitously scenery in a scenery viewer, locates a same underline to be annotated, and again inputs an assessment with honour to a second panorama. The scenery spectator or a mapping use can presumably also offer a ability to supplement additional metadata compared with a annotation, such as a title, link, graphics, etc.

At step 1506, a annotations coordinates on a dual panoramas are used to beget three-dimensional coordinates for a annotation. Given a famous position of a cameras that took a images for a scenery 1410, 1420 and a user-input assessment coordinates relations to a two-dimensional images, as illustrated in FIG. 14, it is probable to discriminate a intersection of a two, decorated as 1450. The outcome is a three-dimensional coordinate for a annotation.

At step 1508, a three-dimensional coordinate for a assessment is reserved to a assessment and stored in a database of annotations. The assessment can afterwards be enclosed with any scenery within some fitting operation of a computed coordinates, including panoramas that were not creatively annotated by a user.

Alternatively, where a relations illustration information is not quite critical to an annotation, it is probable to accept a user annotations as a one-dimensional bend instruction on both panoramas, that facilitates a assignment of a two-dimensional geocode to a assessment (with or though default illustration information).

While several embodiments of a benefaction invention have been described above, it should be accepted that they have been presented by approach of example, and not limitation. It will be apparent to persons learned in a applicable art(s) that several changes can be done therein though vacating from a operation of a invention. Furthermore, it should be appreciated that a minute outline of a benefaction invention supposing herein, and not a outline and epitome sections, is dictated to be used to appreciate a claims. The outline and epitome sections competence set onward one or some-more though not all indication embodiments of a benefaction invention as contemplated by a inventors.

The foregoing outline of a specific embodiments will so entirely exhibit a ubiquitous inlet of a invention that others can, by requesting believe within a ability of a art, straightforwardly cgange and/or adjust for several applications such specific embodiments, though undue experimentation, though vacating from a ubiquitous judgment of a benefaction invention. Therefore, such adaptations and modifications are dictated to be within a definition and operation of equivalents of a disclosed embodiments, formed on a training and superintendence presented herein. It is to be accepted that a phraseology or vernacular herein is for a purpose of outline and not of limitation, such that a vernacular or phraseology of a benefaction selection is to be interpreted by a learned workman in light of a teachings and guidance.

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Perspective Synonyms, Perspective Antonyms |

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۴ خرداد ۱۳۹۴

It unequivocally put a diversion in perspective.

First, a bit on what shapes my perspective.

But let’s also put this dangerous convene in perspective.

You competence benefit some profitable perspective.

Their pursuit is to investigate a perspective of a chairman they are representing.

But once again, let’s adopt a perspective of a normal chairman and reexamine these numbers.

As a republic considers investment in new electricity infrastructure, we should say a long-range perspective.

She sees all in transparent outline and perspective.

But in this case, your employees’ possess perspective is substantially some-more profitable than that of a law.

They are automobile as the perspective widens or contracts.

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گالری نقاشی

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۴ خرداد ۱۳۹۴


var wi = new Number(w);
var he = new Number(h);
if(he 900)
he = 480;
remoteWindow = open(“”, “”, “width=”+wi+”,height=”+he+”, resizable=no,scrollbars=no,toolbar=no,menubar=no”);
var wi = new Number(w);
var he = new Number(h);
wi = wi.valueOf() + 30;
he = he.valueOf() + 30;
remoteWindow = open(a, “_blank”, “width=”+wi+”,height=”+he+”, resizable=yes,scrollbars=yes,toolbar=no,menubar=no”);
remoteWindow.moveTo(screen.width/2 – wi/2, screen.height/2 – he/2);

function FP_swapImg() {//v1.0
var doc=document,args=arguments,elm,n; doc.$imgSwaps=new Array(); for(n=2; n

رژيم های: کنترل وزن (چاقی- لاغری) – دیابت – چربی خون – قلب و عروق – کلیه – دستگاه گوارش –  سوختگی –  تغذیه شیر خواران – اطفال – نوجوانان -سالمندان – ورزشکاران – خانمهای باردار و شیرده   



    گالری نقاشی


گالری نقاشی، عکس تعدادی از
آثار نقاشی خانم ارمغان باستانی
که شامل سایه و روشن، مداد رنگ، پاستل، رنگ و روغن و
آبرنگ می باشد، قابل مشاهده است.

برای دیدن تصاویر بزرگتر روی آنها کلیک کنید.

در صورت تمایل به
سفارش می توانید از طریق آدرس هایی که در قسمت در باره ما آمده
است، اقدام کنید.


   رقص قو           رنگ و روغن

شیپوری    پاستل ۳۵×۷۰

گل آناما           رنگ و روغن

لیلیوم        آبرنگ ۳۲×۲۴


  زن روستایی   

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آموزش سیاه قلم

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۳ خرداد ۱۳۹۴

آموزش سياه قلم

در مورد سیاه قلم:

جف واتس يكي از مربيان برجسته طراحي سر , بدن و اشكال آناتومي است كه هر هنرمند بايد به آنها مسلط باشد تا به صورت يك نقاش چيره دست شود.
او داراي يك سبك مشهور آموزشي است كه يادگيري روابط پيچيده را آسان نموده و نشان مي دهد كه چگونه مهارت هاي طراحي شكل مي گيرد و به طور مستقيم بصورت مهارت هاي نقاشي در مي آيد. بر خلاف برخي كه پيشنهاد مي كنند كه شما بايد طراحي را ياد بگيريد.قبل از اينكه نقاشي را ياد بگيريد جف واتس اصرار مي كند كه مي توان آن ها را با هم ياد گرفت و روي هم تاثير مي گذارند اگر با هم ياد گرفته شوند.
نگرش وي در مورد كسب موارد ضروري يك طراحي سريع, نگريستن , تجزيه و تحليل  و اجرا مي باشد.
در اين ويدئو جف واتس روابط حاكم بر سر انسان را در حالتهاي مختلف ياد مي دهد كه شما مي توانيد  در موقع طراحي از مدل و يا عكس ها به آن ها مراجعه نماييد . او قبل از شروع طراحي از مدل , مجوعه اي از تمرينات ۴-۵ دقيقه اي را در ارتباط با سر انسان به شما نشان مي دهد و سپس شروع به طراحي اصلي خود از روي مدل مي نمايد
اين تمريني است كه او در كلاس هاي خود براي دانشجويان طراحي ارائه مي كند و اين كار هر هفته تكرار مي شود

   روش آموزش
آلف ) آموزش طراحی
آشنائی با الفبای طراحی : خط ، سطح و حجم ، با هدف شناخت تناسبات
پرداختن به نور و سایه ، بافت و جنسیت ، با هدف شناخت فرم سپس کسب مهارت در طراحی با ذغال و آب مرکب
ب ) آموزش نقاشی
شروع کار با رنگ سیاه و سفید ، به تدریج استفاده از مکملهای دوقلو و مباحث تئوری و عملی مرتبط بارنگ
شناخت ابزارهای مختلف نقاشی و کاربرد آنها ،  با هدف شناخت ابزار افزایش مهارت وشناخت تکنیک( زبان و دستخط شخصی) با تمرینهای فراوان و هدفمند
تمرین : از مدل زنده و طبیعت
باز آفرینی و تقلید از آثار اساتید نقاشی ، با هدف شناخت تکنیک و کسب مهارت بیشتر
شناخت مبانی و ترکیب بندی
آفرینش آثار جدید و شخصی با الهام از طبیعت و بهره گیری از توانائیهای تکنیکی ( زبان و دستخط شخصی) که کسب نموده.


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نقاشی سه بعدی خیابانی

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۳ خرداد ۱۳۹۴

برچسب ها: نقاشی های سه بعدی فوق العاده زیبا ,
عکس نقاشی عاشقانه ,
عکس و نقاشی های سه بعدی بسیار جالب ,
مجموعه آثار هنری ,
دانلود رایگان انیمیشن سه بعدی ,
عکسهای سه بعدی ,
دانلود فایل سه بعدی کلینیک ,
بازی بیلیارد کامپیوتر سه بعدی کم ,
خدمات هنری ,
آموزش کشیدن نقاشی سه بعدی بر روی کاغذ ,
نقاشی سه بعدی خیابانی ,
ولی این بار نقاشی سه بعدی ,
عکس نقاشی ,
عکس نقاشی مدرن ,
دانلود مجموعه آثار هنری ,
دانلود آموزش کشیدن نقاشی سه بعدی ,
هنر خیابانی ,
ساخت انیمیشن بعدی ,
سه بعدی ,
پازل های سه بعدی فومی ,
شاهکار های نقاشی های بعدی ,
نقاشی سه بعدی ,
تکنولوژی و سبکهای نوین هنری و ,
آموزش کشیدن نقاشی سه بعدی ,
نقاشی های زیبا و هنری رنگ روغن ,
نقاشی های هنری ,
بهترین های نقاشی های سه بعدی ,
ساخت تصاویر بعدی ,
اجرای نقاشی سه بعدی در بوستان ,
نقاشیهای بسیار زیبا و سه بعدی ,

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نقاشی » طراحی از چهره کودکان‬

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۳ خرداد ۱۳۹۴

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dr-bface 1-7(

dr-bface 1-8(

dr-bface 1-9(

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عکس طراحی منظره

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۲ خرداد ۱۳۹۴

دانلود بازی کودکان کامپیوتر ,
کریت پارچه مدل ۲ ,
عکسهای بچه های تیم ملی فوتبال ایران در مرکز شهر برزیل ,
يوگاي لگن ,
دومین جشنواره ساخت مجسمه های شنی گیلان در رودسر ,
رییس کل دادگستری استان مرکزی ,
درست کردن پیتزا با خمیر نون بربری ,
عکس از مدل کیف های فانتزی چرم ,
مجری مراسم قرعه کشی جام جهانی ,

اهنک پلنگ زد بازی ,
س ک س بچه سال ,
پیراهن مجلسی برای نوجوانان ,
رکورد هایه جهان ,
بیوگرافی سرورپور(جدید) ,
صلاحیت ها در قانون ایین دادرسی قدیم و جدید ,
رنگ سال ۹۴ چه رنگی هست ,
مقالات isiدر مورد مراحل رشد جنین در رحم ,
عکس های عاشقانه شب شهر ,
پروژه مهماندوست ,
مقاله درباره مدیریت منابع اب ,
روش آموزش جدول ضرب ,
اخبارسیاسی سلماس ,
تزیینات بادکنک های ساده جشن تولد ,
بهترین عکس داخل خانه های لوکس ,
ورزش بنارویه ,
تراکت انواع شیرینی ,
عکسهای نیمه برهنه نجلا ,
تکاور نیروی دریایی سپاه ,
راهکار هایی برای کم شدن استرس دانش آموزان از معلم ,
مطالبی آموزنده برای دبستانی ها ,
دعای رزمندگان ,
چرا حلقه انگشت چهارم ,
البوم بیس دار پیت بول ,
شهوتخانه خفن توپ ,
ذبح مصری بدست داعش ,
ویکی پدیا لانه چرخ ریسک ایرانی ,
منو حامله کرد ,
پخش قسمت اخر فیلم همه چیز انجاست ,
فهرست شیرینی خشک ,

‘عکس طراحی منظره’ – ۰٫۰۱۷

تفریح و سرگرمی

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Constructing Paradoxical Architecture

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۱ خرداد ۱۳۹۴


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نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (۹ …

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۲۰ خرداد ۱۳۹۴
نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 ...

هنرمندی که قبلا در جشنواره هنرهای گچی ساراسوتا (لینک مطلب ) درخشیده بود و
آن طرح لوگو راکشیده بود این باردر هلند توسط یک مالک گالری ثروتمند دعوت
شده تا نقشی از یک بازی کامپیوتری قدیمی بر روی زمین ترسیم کند. این طرح
برای او ۳ روز زمان برده است. بزرگترین مشکل او در این مسیر باران های فصلی
در هلند بوده است.


نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

نقاشی سه بعدی پک من روی زمین (9 عکس)

لطفا کمي صبر کنيد…

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The singular three-dimensional (3D) images in a streets of …

نوشته شده در موضوع خرید اینترنتی در ۱۹ خرداد ۱۳۹۴
The unique three-dimensional (3D) images in the streets of ...

Top 13 many gifted 3D path artists showcasing some of their best works.3D Street Art is combined by painting, chalking or sketch a plane aspect from one perspective. When a finished design is noticed by a camera from a same
position and viewpoint a design appears to demeanour 3 dimensional.


۱٫ Central Shopping Centre. 
Qi Xinghua pennyless a record with his square in Macau, China. The design was 120m prolonged and was combined to applaud a second anniversary of a Central Shopping Centre in Macau. It is a second time Xinghua has hold a record for carrying a longest anamorphic design and we demeanour brazen to saying if his record binds in 2012.


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