آوریل 182018

Can we solve this art chronological riddle?

A lady moves into a new home. Beneath a swath of drywall in a vital room is a work by one of a many vicious artists of a 21st century. But even if she uncovers it, a picture is worthless. Can we theory a artist?

The answer: Sol LeWitt.

It competence sound like a fanciful mind tease, though this unfolding is indeed personification out right now in Houston, Texas, where a family’s preference to expose a dark sketch has turn a clear painting of a clarification of unpractical art.

But not everybody is gratified about a project. 

Walling Over LeWitt

The story began in 2013, when a designer William Stern died and left his home and art land to a Menil Collection in Houston. Among a works was Wall Drawing #679 (1991), a wall-engulfing blue picture with yellow and red intersecting lines that LeWitt combined privately for Stern’s vital room.

The Menil Collection decided to keep Stern’s art, though sole a home to a internal dentist in 2014. Before she altered in, a museum had a colourful pattern embellished over.

 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...58399 Main wall view from landing 1024x1024 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...

The categorical wall of a William Stern House in Houston, Texas. Image pleasantness of Jonna Hitchcock.

“When we ceased to possess a wall and a residence it formerly existed in, and could no longer be in control of a environment, it was embellished over and a earthy life came to an end,” a orator for a Menil Collection explained to artnet News. “This was always a vigilant of a artist, and is a customary procession when these works change ownership.” Although a museum has not reconstructed a block given it entered a collection, “it still exists as a judgment and idea.” 

Indeed, this impulse illustrates unpractical art in action: The certificate of flawlessness and instructions for how to govern a work consecrate a wall drawing, rather than a earthy paint itself. When a Menil lonesome adult a wall, what lay underneath ceased to be a work of Sol LeWitt.

Un-Erasing a Past

That fact, however, hasn’t stopped a homeowner’s daughter, Jonna Hitchcock, from seeking to expose a strange design. Hitchcock says she and her mom always knew a LeWitt work was sitting right underneath a white wall. But they had not dared to go digging for it. That altered when a crony who was visiting “had a bravery to go over and scratch a bit,” she says. 

To a family’s surprise, they found that a strange sketch was lonesome not by paint, though simply by a covering of sheetrock, that came off simply when moistened. Hitchcock motionless to welcome a event and ask a routine of detection a sketch by a documentary and on a website she has called Un-Erasing Sol LeWitt.

Indeed, Hitchcock considers a whole routine a kind of unpractical art plan of her own: The name of a blog is a curtsy to Robert Rauschenberg’s famous work, Erased de Kooning Drawing.

 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...09735 Wall with line of paint chipped away 1024x850 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...

Detail of a partially unclosed Sol Lewitt sketch (framed by red square). Image pleasantness of Jonna Hitchcock.

“I wish a plan brings some-more pleasantness and bargain of what unpractical art is all about,” she tells artnet News.

Debate Ensues

Hitchcock reached out to a LeWitt estate and a Menil Collection to warning them of her plans, though says they have not communicated with her directly about it. (A deputy for a estate did not immediately respond to a ask for comment.)

So far, a Menil seems to be begrudgingly granting a project. A orator for a collection told artnet News that “the homeowner competence positively do whatever projects they wish to commence in their home.” But he also took caring to explain that what they are uncovering is not, in fact, a work by Sol LeWitt.

Hitchcock says she understands that—up to a point. Although she was not arcane to a agreement between Stern and a Menil, she says that conversations with Stern’s former colleagues and friends have led her to trust that a designer would have wanted a museum to keep a residence and benefaction a LeWitt in a space for that it was designed.

 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...d80dd wall gold close up horz 1024x680 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...

Detail images of a partially unclosed Sol Lewitt drawing. Images pleasantness of Jonna Hitchcock.

“This sketch was site-specific and distinct many LeWitt drawings, it wasn’t designed to be temporary—it was inked again 10 years after a initial execution,” she says. 

A Stern Dissent

Roy Nolen, a executor of William Stern’s estate, disagrees. In a matter to artnet News, he says that “Bill Stern dictated that a designation of a wall sketch in his residence was to be terminated, and that a Menil was to possess a wall drawing, with a right to implement it whenever and wherever it chooses.” He records that he and Stern had many conversations about a collection in a weeks before his genocide and “specifically discussed that techniques a staff of a Menil competence occupy to ‘remove’ a LeWitt wall sketch from a house.”

“I am utterly certain that he would feel that his bequest and repute were being exploited for personal benefit by a supposed ‘unerasing’ documentary due by member of a stream owners of a residence he built and loved,” Nolen says. (Hitchcock calls a idea that she or her mom are encouraged by personal benefit “preposterous.”)

 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...9e727 1024x1024 1003x1024 One Texas Woman’s Paradoxical and ...

Architect Bill Stern. Photo pleasantness of Stern and Bucek Architects.

Hitchcock is now consulting internal conservators and artists about how best to ensue to expose a work safely. Is she endangered that a museum or estate competence eventually ask her to desert her quest?

“A month ago, my mom had a plain white wall in a residence that she loved,” Hitchcock says. “And a misfortune thing that could occur is if by some variable authorised loophole someone compels us to cover it behind up.”

Then again, she notes, her plan is doubtful to set a cryptic precedent. “It’s not like everybody is going to start chipping divided to find their Sol LeWitt now,” she says. “It’s a flattering singular situation.”

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Article source: https://news.artnet.com/art-world/sol-lewitt-drawing-menil-texas-1201514

آوریل 182018

قلم‌زنی یکی از رشته‌های هنرهای سنتی ایران است که در دسته بندی، در رده هنرهای صناعی و در گروه فلزکاری قرار دارد. نقش اندازی، تزیین و کندن نقوش بر بدنه های فلزی از جنس مس، برنج، طلا، نقره از طریق چکش و قلم های فولادی ر ابه اصطلاح قلم زنی می گویند. ظرافت، دقت و حوصله از مهم ترین لوازم کار هنر قلمزنی است که موجب می شود آثاری چشم نواز و هنرمندانه پدید آیند. ظرافت طرح ، یکنواختی همه سطوح بدنه و اجرای درست طرح از جمله امتیازات یک اثر خوب و ماندگار می باشد. 


قلم زنی یک شیوه تزئینی است که بشرآن را همزمان با شناخت فلزاتی که در طبیعت وجود داشته ابداع کرده است. سابقه این هنر قدیمی به زمان سکاها یا سیت ها باز می گردد که از نژاد آریایی  بوده اند. (یاوری، 1392: 234). قلمزنی در ایران پیشینه ای بس طولانی دارد وتاریخچه نخستین فلزکاری در ایران به 6 هزار سال پیش می رسد.از آثار فلزی دوره هخامنشی، نمونه های زیادی در دست نیست، اما مجموعه ای از ظرف ها و بشقاب های نقره و طلای عصر ساسانی بدست آمده که سلاطین و بزرگان را در بزم و شکار نشان می دهد می توان به رواج این هنر در دوران قبل از اسلام در ایران پی برد. طبیعتاً هنگامی که این قدرت فنی و هنری به دوره اسلامی انتقال یافت، آثار فلزی هنرمندان ایرانی به تمام نقاط سرزمین پهناور اسلام صادر گردید. ظاهرا علت عمده این اقبال، شکل زیبای ظاهری و تزیینات آن بوده است( مجله کیهان ،1364 : 48).در دوران اسلامی صنعت قلمزنی رواج فوق العاده داشته و شاهد این مدعا، مجموعه ظروفی است که به شکل حیوانات و پرندگان ساخته شده اند. اما جالب ترین هنر فلزکاری دوره سلجوقی، ترصیع مس قرمز رنگ و نقره کاری روی ظروف برنزی و سپس برنجی است. هنر طلاکوبی و نقره کوبی مفرغ در سده های هشتم و نهم هجری به درجه کمال خود رسید. در این دوران آثاری مانند قدح، تنگ، شمعدان و… ساخته می شدند. عصر صفویه نیز اوج شکوفایی هنردستی در اصفهان است و آثار مفرغی این دوره از بهترین کارهای جهان به شمار می رود. در ایران این هنر همواره با سبک ایرانی ملازمت داشته و نقوش آن اغلب گل و بوته های ایرانی بوده است. گفتنی است اصفهان از مراکز مهم صنعت قلمزنی بوده و در حال حاضر بیشترین تعداد کارگاه های صنایع دستی اصفهان را کارگاه های قلمزنی مس و برنج تشکیل می دهند(نشریه اتاق بازرگانی، 1376: 40).

دو گروه ابزار جهت قلمزنی یا به طور کلی صنایع فلزی مورد استفاده قرار می گيرد.

1­ ابزار برای ساخت زیر کار محصول: دستگاه خم کاری٬ موتور فرچه٬ کوره٬ سندان و چکش.

2­ ابزار قلمزنی: دستگاه قير آب کنی٬ پرگار٬ چکش قلم زنی٬ انواع قلم با شماره ها و نوکهای مختلف که مقطع هر کدام شکل و نقشی متفاوت دارد.

انواع شیوه های قلمزنی

قلمزنی بر روی فلز به شیوه های مختلفی انجام می شود که عبارتند از: عکسی، زمینه پر، منبت، برجسته، مشبک، قلم گیری و حکاکی.

شیوه عکسی: با ایجاد سایه و خط در زمینه، موضوع را نشان می دهند. هیچ گونه اختلاف سطحی بین موضوع و زمینه مشاهده نمی شود.

شیوه زمینه پر: همانگونه که از نام آن بر می آید با ایجاد بافت در زمینه، طرح اصلی را نشان می دهند. در این شیوه نیز اختلاف سطح بین زمینه وجود ندارد.

شیوه منبت: در این شیوه هنرمند با ایجاد حداکثر دو سانتی متر اختلاف سطح بین موضوع و زمینه، روی فلز نقش ایجاد می کند. میزان اختلاف سطح به قطر فلز بستگی دارد.

شیوه برجسته( جٌنده کاری) : در این روش اختلاف سطح بین موضوع و زمینه بسیار زیادتر از روش منبت است و هنرمند برای آن که بتواند اشکال آن را انجام دهد از دو طرف یعنی پشت و رو به فلز ضربه می زند. به این ترتیب که زمینه را از رو پایین برده موضوع را از پشت بالا می آورد. این روش در مورد اشیایی قابل اجراست که در آن امکان ضربه زدن از هر دو جهت وجود دارد. این نوع قلم زنی در اصفهان به جٌنده کاری معروف است که ابتدا پشت کار را قیر گرفته و با استفاده از قلمهای جنده کاری ظرف برجسته می شود. پس از اینکه عمل برجسته کاری صورت گرفت، مجدداً قیر را به سمت اولیه برگردانده و در این مرحله روسازی و زمینه کردن کار انجام می پذیرد.

d9c51 ghalamzani 2 قلمزنی

 قلمزنی به شیوه جٌنده کاری

تکنیک مشبک: در این روش پس از انتقال طرح به وسیله قلم نیم بر، طرح را ثابت می کنند. بعد به کمک قلم تیزبر  قسمت های زمینه طرح را از سطح فلز برش داده و جدا می کنند و کار را مشبک می نمایند. از این شیوه معمولاً در قدیم در ساخت و سازهای چراغهای فانوسی و محل هایی که قرار است از آنها آب عبور کند استفاده میشد.

d8ff3 ghalamzani 3 قلمزنی

 قلمزنی به شیوه مشبک

شیوه قلم گیری: هنرمند با ایجاد خراش و شیار بر روی فلز، آن را تزیین می کند. این کار به وسیله قلم انجام می شود. گاهی درون شیارها را رنگی می کنند تا طرح بهتر نمایان شود. بدین منظور اغلب از دوده و روغن جلای سیاه استفاده می کنند (سید صدر، 1388: 301-300).

شیوه حکاکی : حکاکی بر خلاف قلمزنی که با کمک چکش و انواع قلم نقوشی بطور برجسته یا فرور فته بر روی فلز حک می شود، نقوش کاملاً برجسته است و معمولا، هنرمند با بهره گیری از ابزار خاصی که اصطلاحاً منقاش نامیده می شود، قسمت هایی از فلز را می خراشد و از روی محصول بر می دارد. این شیوه بیشتر در قلمزنی سبک تبریز استفاده می شود(نشریه اتاق بازرگانی، 1376: 40).

900e1 ghalamzani 4 قلمزنی

سبک قلمزنی تبریز (حکاکی)

سبک ها

دو سبک اصلی در قلمزنی ایران مطرح است که عبارتند از سبک تبریز و سبک اصفهان. در سبک تبریز برای حرکت قلم و انجام قلمزنی از حرکت و فشار مچ دست استفاده می‌شود و در سبک اصفهان از ضربات چکش. به همین سبب قلم زنی تبریز صاف و کم عمق است ولی قلم زنی اصفهان عمیق‌تر می‌باشد.                  


شیوه کار

شیوه کار به این ترتیب است که ابتدا قلمزن ها طرحی را که باید بر روی فلز منتقل شود با مداد روی کاغذ ترسیم می کند. ابتدا طرح را با کمک سوزن در فواصلی نزدیک به هم سوراخ کرده و بعد از قرار دادن آن بر روی فلز، گرد زغال را که در پارچه ای نازک پیچیده شده، بر روی سوراخ ها می تکانند. به این ترتیب گرد زغال از سوراخ های طرح گذشته و بر روی فلز می نشیند و نمایی کمرنگ از طرح روی فلز باقی می ماند. سپس این طرح به کمک مداد یا قلم، پر رنگ و آماده قلمزنی می شود.

9794d ghalamzani 5 قلمزنی

پس از ترسیم نقش روی بدنه فلزی، درون یا برون شیء را با قیر پر می کنند. به طور مثال اگر قلمزنی داخل یک سینی قلمزنی شود، قسمت بیرونی آن را در قیر قرار می دهند و اگر قسمت بیرونی یک گلدان قلمزنی شود، درون آن قیر ریخته می شود. دلیل استفاده از قیر در قلمزنی جلوگیری از سروصدای زیاد و سوراخ شدن سطح فلز بر اثر ضربات چکش است. همچنین باید مقداری خاکستر و خاک اره با قیر مخلوط شود تا چسبندگی قیر کاهش یافته و سریعتر از سطح فلز جدا می شود. بعد از این مرحله استادکار ظرف را بر روی کنده ای چوبی استوار کرده و به کمک چکش و قلم که هر یک از آن ها دارای حالتی خاص هستند و برای قلمزنی بخش ویژه ای به کار می روند، نقش مورد نظر را بر روی فلز حک می کند. گاهی قلمزن برای زیباتر شدن محصول، به تکنیک سیاه قلم متوسل  می شود. به این صورت که مقداری دوده را با روغن بزرک یا روغن جلا مخلوط کرده و بر سطح فلز قلمزنی شده می کشد. به این ترتیب دوده در قسمت های گود طرح نشسته و باعث نمایاندن بیشتر و بهتر خطوط طرح می شود. گاهی نیز محصول قلمزنی شده بنا به ضرورت یا سلیقه هنرمند با تکنیک های دیگری همچون مشبک کاری، ترصیع و طلاکوبی کامل می شود. بعد از اتمام کلیه مراحل قلمزنی، با کمک چراغ کوره ای قیر را از محصول جدا کرده و برای از بین بردن قطعات ریز قیری که احتمالاً به فلز چسبیده  است آن را در کوره های زغالی قرار می دهند و سپس فرآورده را با پارچه ای زبر یا با کمک ماشین های برقی پرداخت و پولیش می کنند. چنانچه قلمزنی بر روی فلز برنج انجام شود ضرورتی به انجام عملیات خاص بر روی آن نیست. در حالی که مس را معمولاً سفیدگری نموده و سپس به قلمزنی بر آن می پردازند. گاهی نیز از مس سفید نشده برای ساخت محصولات قلمزنی استفاده می کنند(نشریه اتاق بازرگانی، 1376: 41).

این هنر در اصفهان، تبریز، تهران و اراک از رواج خوبی برخوردار است. روش نگهداری آن حفاظت از رطوبت مداوم، اشیاء نوک تیز و برنده است و با آب ولرم و شوینده های معمولی و غیر اسیدی قابل شستشو می باشد (یاوری، 1392: 234).


سید صدر، سید ابوالقاسم. 1388. دایره المعارف هنرهای صنایع دستی و حرف مربوط به آن.تهران: انتشارات سیمای دانش

نشریه اتاق بازرگانی. 1376. هنر قلمزنی و حکاکی در ایران. شماره 12. ص 40-41.

نشریه کیهان فرهنگی. 1364 .استاد محمود دهنوی. قلمزنی هنرمند. شماره 14. ص .48

یاوری، حسین. 1392. هنرهای سنتی ایران در یک نگاه.تهران: انتشارات سیمای دانش.  

Article source: http://darnia.ir/blog/52_%D9%82%D9%84%D9%85%D8%B2%D9%86%DB%8C.html

آوریل 182018

آموزش نقاشی ، نکات و دانستنیها

این بخش حاوی نکات آموزش نقاشی و دانستنیهای ریز و درشت مربوطه این هنر میباشد. آموزش های تخصصی رنگ روغن و شناخت ملزومات آن، طرز نگهداری و شستشوی ابزار، شناخت رنگ و ترکیبات رنگی و غیره. امیدواریم
این آموزش ها بتواند جستجوهای جویندگان مطالب آموزشی این حوزه را پاسخگو باشد. آموزشگاه نقاشی ایکاروس شما را به مطالعه این نکات دعوت میکند. هر آنچه در باره نقاشی باید بدانید را اینجا بیابید.

Article source: http://www.mahvis.net/

آوریل 182018

عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ ۹۶ / هفدهمین جشن حافظ

3fdf1  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 6 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

  نوید محمدزاده و جواد عزتی در جشن حافظ ۹۶

93546  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 5 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

مهران مدیری در جشن حافظ ۹۶

93546  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 1 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

هوتن شکیبا در جشن حافظ ۹۶

93546  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 4 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

هومن سیدی در هفدهمین جشن حافظ

a66a9  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 3 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

  نوید محمدزاده در هفدهمین جشن حافظ

a66a9  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 8 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

احسان علیخانی در جشن حافظ ۹۶

a66a9  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 9 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

رضا عطاران در جشن حافظ ۹۶

a66a9  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 7 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

جواد عزتی در جشن حافظ ۹۶

5306e  %D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8 96 2 عکس برگزیدگان مرد جشن حافظ 96 / هفدهمین جشن حافظ – حیاط خلوت

مهران مدیری در هفدهمین جشن حافظ

گردآوری: حیاط خلوت

♥ جذاب ترین مطالب روزانه را در کانال تلگرام حیاط خلوت ببینید

Article source: http://hayatkhalvat.com/2017/08/%D8%B9%DA%A9%D8%B3-%D8%A8%D8%B1%DA%AF%D8%B2%DB%8C%D8%AF%DA%AF%D8%A7%D9%86-%D9%85%D8%B1%D8%AF-%D8%AC%D8%B4%D9%86-%D8%AD%D8%A7%D9%81%D8%B8-96-%D9%87%D9%81%D8%AF%D9%87%D9%85%DB%8C%D9%86-%D8%AC%D8%B4/

آوریل 182018

پروژه های معماران ایرانی (بر اساس نام معمار)

پروژه های معماری ایران بر اساس شهر:

پروژه معماری در دنیا بر اساس کشور:

سایر موضوعات معماری:

طراحی داخلی بر اساس فضا:

دکوراسیون داخلی بر اساس فضا:

مطالب مرتبط با دانشجویان معماری:

دانلود فایل های مورد نیاز معماران:

آموزش نرم افزار معماری:

مسابقات معماری

پروژه های معماران جهان

سایر موضوعات سایت:

Article source: http://archline.ir/%D8%AF%D8%A7%D9%86%D9%84%D9%88%D8%AF-%D9%86%D9%85%D9%88%D9%86%D9%87-%D8%B4%DB%8C%D8%AA-%D8%A8%D9%86%D8%AF%DB%8C-%D8%AF%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D8%AA%D9%88%DA%A9%D8%AF-dwg/

آوریل 172018

چگونه خودم را دوست داشته باشم


رنگ مو با دکلره و بدون دکلره

علائم بارداری

علائم بارداری پسر

تزئین سالاد

عکس پروفایل اردیبهشت ماهی

عکس پروفایل

عکس پروفایل برای نیمه شعبان

عکس خاص و زیبا

تزیین سالاد الویه

عکس پروفایل تولد همسر

ماه رمضان ۹۷

طلاق توافقی

Article source: http://iranbanou.com/magazin/704778-%D8%B1%D8%B3%D8%AA%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%B1%D9%86-%D9%84%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%87-%D8%A7%D8%B3%DA%A9%D9%86%D8%AF%D8%B1%DB%8C

آوریل 172018

FEFU: …I am in consistent pain. we don’t wish to give into it. If we do we am fearful we will never recover…It’s not physical, and it’s not sorrow. It’s unequivocally bizarre Emma, we can’t news it, and it’s unequivocally frightening…It is as if routinely there is a lubricant…not in a body…a devout lubricant…it’s tough to describe…and though it, life is a nightmare, and all is distorted… (Fornes 1992:29).

Pain, in a clarity that it will be discussed here, is a ‘not physical…not sorrow’ pain of women whose subjectivity has been colonised by a widespread complement of representation, a hegemonic force of patriarchy. It is a pain that has twisted womanlike experience, and it is a pain that both playwrights deliberate here fastener with as good as resist. Employing Elaine Aston’s idea of a ‘sphere of disturbance’ it is my goal to expose how a pain that is a knowledge of all a womanlike characters underneath care functions as a evidence tool, a means of sketch courtesy to a colonising army digest themselves painfully genuine on a womanlike subjects. Aston suggests that a feminist entertainment use competence work rigourously and ideologically as a ‘sphere of disturbance’ and within this space, representational systems (of gender, sex, class, competition etc) are a theme of (and are subjected to) this reeling (1999: 17-18).

In sequence to clarify a functioning of pain in these twin plays, we am contracting my possess singularity of lively realism, translating this literary genre to theatre, and feminism, privately feminist entertainment practice. we call this hybrid, ‘magical feminism’, and it lies within a ‘sphere of disturbance’ that Aston proposes. Feminist theory’s aim of ‘decolonising’ informative representations of women and divulgence a beliefs embedded in realism is over by a denunciation of lively realism. As Faris states:

The irreducible elements in a hybrid mode of lively realism divide a basement of management of realism, creation proceed for new forms of sermon that simulate choice ways of being to emerge. It is this destabilising of realism, that has a longstanding energy of illustration in a west, that has done lively realism an enabling sermon for a postcolonial universe (2002:113).

D’Haen states that it is a categories ‘women’ and ‘non-Western peoples’ that have been ‘traditionally released from a ‘privileged centres’ of culture, race, and gender, and therefore from a user discourses of power’ (Zamora and Faris, 1995:200). As such, both categories can be discussed as carrying been ‘colonised’. In serve to this, a twin plays underneath care ‘…emphasize a border to that alternative, frequently marginalised modes of suspicion are not limited to (post)colonial cultures, though also exist in Western settings’ (Hegerfeldt in courtesy to sorcery realism, 2002:64). In this synthesis, a hybrid form is extended in both directions, to embody women in a difficulty of colonised, and to embody entertainment in a genre of lively realism. As such, feminism, in this example, is discussed in terms of ‘decolonisation’.

Magical feminism, as a hybrid of lively realism and feminism, operates as a denunciation within a incomparable form that is feminism. Magical feminism is not a antidote or a remedy to well-spoken over pain and tie it adult easily with some illusory melodramatic techniques. Here, we will find no ‘take once a day’ lively tablet to solve all problems. Instead, lively feminism draws a gawk closer to a inconsistencies, a ugliness, a deformities and a pain, and encourages us to get right in and take a good look. It is critical to understand, in a care of lively realism as a feminist discourse, that a ‘magical’ components of lively realism are used to flourish a stipulations of denunciation and a ability to paint reality. The sorcery or abnormal acts as apparatus of defamiliarisation, foregrounding those informative ‘norms’ that are so deeply embedded that we are no longer wakeful of them, though that continue to continue a marginalisation of women. In lively feminism, ‘ontological intrusion serves a purpose of domestic and informative disruption: sorcery is mostly given as a informative corrective, requiring readers to scrutinize supposed picturesque conventions of causality, materiality, motivation’ (Zamora Faris, 1995:3). By supplementing thespian realism with lively elements, it is not a anticipation universe that is created, though rather an eventuality to enhance on a parameters of reality, and beget a globe of disturbance. This, as we will go on to be demonstrated, does not always have a certain outcome, though it does emanate a detonation that brings to light those mechanisms that have generated a pain in a initial place. In both examples, that resource is privately a congenital omnipotence that has inscripted itself on a bodies of a womanlike characters in both verbatim and non-literal ways, done perceptible by a lively feminist gaze. The lively feminist takes this space of reeling as her starting indicate and does not obsess over her symptoms, though rather attempts to exhibit a environments that have precipitated them. Magical feminism, then, is one plan that can be employed by feminist thespian practitioners to grasp decolonisation of a womanlike subject.

I have selected twin womanlike playwrights, Maria Irene Fornes and Lally Katz, to clarify how lively feminism functions as a apparatus to lift courtesy to a oft-unrecognised modes of suspicion that continue a marginalisation of women. It is a ambiguity of their writing, a co-existence of plural worldhoods, a formidable and enigmatic womanlike characters and a strenuous appearance of enigmatic pain that leads me to lift these twin plays together, notwithstanding these plays carrying been created scarcely thirty years apart.

Fefu and Her Friends by Maria Irene Fornes is a play that is quick entrance a thirtieth anniversary of a initial opening as an off-off Broadway show, and is now deliberate an avant-garde, someday feminist classical (Farfan 1997; Moroff 1996; Geis 1993). The play, set in a 1930’s in New England, sees 8 educated, mostly middle-class, women ordering over a weekend to arrange a display per education. Fefu is a stewardess of a weekend and it is her ‘constant pain’, staying in some unknowable partial of herself, along with a earthy nonetheless hallucinatory pain of a circle chair firm Julia, that is a concentration of this play. All 8 women perceptible pain (emotional, physical, spiritual, and/or political) in some proceed or another. The play starts with a women nearing during Fefu’s home. They are all famous to any other in one proceed or another, and share connectors such as past insinuate relationships, or being aged university friends. Fefu starts by dogmatic her dread of women and her welfare for masculine company, so sourroundings adult a extraordinary juncture to a events maturation around her. She stays on corner via a women’s arrival, behaving adult to a women who do not know her well, being intentionally provocative with her big, confidant statements, wielding her husband’s gun with shocking casualness. As a play unfolds, it is apparent that a ordering of 8 women in this proceed is a play and movement of a play, as they all onslaught to come to terms with their ‘female-ness’ in a congenital system. As a women’s relations play out in Fefu’s home, Julia and Fefu lift one another ever closer to confronting their fear of and inability to be ‘embodied’ as women, and this eventually leads to Julia’s death.

Along with this classical play we have selected a unequivocally new play, The Eisteddfod, by Lally Katz, achieved for a initial time during a eccentric entertainment venue, The Store Room in North Fitzroy, Melbourne, Australia, in Jun and Jul of 2004, and many recently in 2005 during a New York Fringe Festival. This is a story of a hermit and sister, Abolone and Gerture who are both in their thirties nonetheless sealed in a half-life between childhood and adulthood after a aroused genocide of their relatives in a tree pruning accident. The hermit and sister work towards a opening of Macbeth for a internal Eisteddfod, an endeavour Abolone has done catastrophic attempts during winning given childhood. He now invites his sister to participate, in an try to lift her behind from a together universe in that she is an hypothetical schoolteacher, and a place she is spending some-more and some-more time, to a ostracism of Abolone. It is Gerture’s pain that forms a centre of this comment and it is by her pain that she is means to commence a redemptive act that eventually frees her from their claustrophobic bedroom and Abolone’s control. The events of this play all exist in a rarely gossamer attribute to existence as a siblings play out ‘scenes’ as they wish or suppose their lives competence have happened. But these are characters whose lives have never indeed ‘happened’. They build worlds within worlds, prolongation a space of drop and desire, though though any discernible thoughtfulness in a genuine world. Abolone plays Gerture’s violent boyfriend, Ian. Gerture plays ‘Mother’ to a needy Abolone, and they play their relatives for one another to imagine, or even remember, how their parent’s attribute competence have looked. Over a march of a play, Gerture disappears serve into her possess hypothetical ‘school’ world, withdrawal a pessimistic and widespread Abolone behind. It is a Eisteddfod that he uses as a device to lift her behind to him, though it becomes apparent that Gerture has outgrown a hypothetical worlds played out in their common bedroom. As yet, as with all of Katz’s writing, it stays unpublished.

To start with, a lively feminist reading of both plays interprets a instances of pain as verbatim events. In so doing, paradoxically and disturbingly, both plays inspire obscure readings. This is a spin during that lively feminism operates. Magical feminism permits a digest of a empirically impossible, possible. Neither story nor embellishment speculation are germane to bargain these plays. In fact, ‘Fornes privately denies a use of allegory’ (Moroff 1996:46). Both writers are enlivening a reading and examination of a events as verbatim and as a outcome ambiguity is a required and preferred side effect. This is because, as Hegerfeldt records in propinquity to sorcery realism, in lively feminism, ‘The twin duty of saving opposite universe views while concurrently deconstructing all claims to concept validity’ permits all sorts of fictions to spin ‘real’ on a spin of content or performance, and during a same time, by a use of meta-theatrical strategies and a misdemeanour of thespian techniques, doubt is expel on a trustworthiness of a content (Hegerfeldt 2002: 65). For example, most has been done of a fractured identities of a characters in Fefu, their shop-worn psyches, and a always absent nonetheless ever benefaction masculine characters (Geis 1993; Farfan 1997). What we am attempting to expose is something some-more difficult and distant simpler. Events are what they are. We don’t need to appreciate a impression of a circle chair firm Julia as pang from a Freudian excitable condition in that she is visited by furious hallucinations in a form of masculine judges. Julia is wheel-chair firm given she is, either a doctors can find anything wrong or not, and she is visited by tangible judges, seen or unseen, who indeed make her trust she is a disaster given she is a woman, and bluster her life.

As such, what lively feminism does by a comprehensive literalisation of a word (making embellishment genuine in other words), defamiliarisation and use of meta-theatricality, is to lift pain to a aspect of reality. It gives epitome notions of pain form and in such a proceed provides this pain with a space in that it can be enacted, identified, explored, even if not resolved. In serve to this, a preferred outcome of these techniques is to plea assembly expectations and rendezvous by a bizarre diagnosis of denunciation and a spatio-temporal pivot of a melodramatic event. This is essential to a lively feminist intention, for

A play, that requires a declare to ‘re-examine a rules’ of play final her/his partnership and active appearance in a prolongation of meaning. Such a review hurdles a spectator’s propinquity to both a thespian universe and a tangible world. It is a routine of rendezvous whereby what is famous becomes ‘unknown’. (Aston Savona 1991: 33)

In this way, Aston’s globe of reeling functions to plea systems of illustration within a time and space of a melodramatic event, and by extension, to plea a informative systems of illustration that continue a colonization of a womanlike subject.

All of a women in Fefu with a difference of Emma clear their pain in one proceed or another and these ‘various struggles to live this ‘female’ space comment for roughly all a thespian and comment action’ (Morof,1996:37). Of good seductiveness to a lively feminist use is because all this has come to pass. What are a conditions that have generated this state of affairs? Why is this woman, indeed because are all a women, in pain? Besides a apparent examples of Fefu and Julia’s pain, there is a nightmarish pain of Cindy’s dreams in that she is a plant of masculine energy by woe and ‘cure’; Christina’s privacy and rejecting of cognisance with her womanlike friends; a unpleasant finale of a attribute between Paula and Cecilia; and finally, Sue’s recounting of a pain inflicted as punishment on 3 women with whom she attended university, ‘punished for their probity as good as for their artistic and egghead efforts’ (Moroff 1996:53).

For a lively feminist interpretation of these plays, what is critical is a idea of a widespread hegemonies as constructions, fictions that can be re-written and divested of their power.

Magical realist texts stress a proceed in that all modes of suspicion and perception, be they rational-scientific or other, can usually ever yield constructions of a universe – that means that universe views are never comprehensive and universal, though indispensably provisional and open to rider (Hegerfeldt, 2002: 65).

It is novella itself that can describe a devising of a opposite worldview and beget decolonised systems of representation. Fornes achieves this in Fefu:

Fornes’s heterogeneous proceed to form is quite rewarding for a women in this play; a musical space ensuing from realism and a coexisting bursting of realism creates an effervescent melodramatic territory. In sequence to try women characters’ appearance in particular, Fornes offers a melodramatic space generally supportive to a theatre’s intensity as an choice space, partial real, partial novella (Moroff 1996: 36).

As an prolongation of this, a hierarchy of domain and centre is also incompetent to claim itself. For a lively feminist this means that a doubt of marginalisation of a womanlike theme is brought to light, importantly to capacitate this binary structure to be denied a power. Where is a domain and where is a centre in this effervescent melodramatic territory? ‘The evil stratagem of lively realist novella is that a twin apart comment modes never conduct to arrange themselves into any kind of hierarchy’ (Slemon in Zamora Faris, 1995:410). Instead we have an effervescent space, a globe of reeling that allows for a construction and deconstruction of mixed fictions, observation them all as concurrently genuine and imaginary and therefore open to negotiation. As Slemon writes, ‘This conflict is represented in a denunciation of exegesis by a foregrounding of twin hostile discursive systems, with conjunction handling to subordinate or enclose a other. This postulated antithesis forestalls a probability of interpretive closure by any act of naturalizing a content to an determined complement of representation’ (Slemon in Zamora Faris 1995:410). In this way, these lively feminist plays ‘de-naturalise’ realism, facing closure of a meaning-making routine and permitting for a talented renderings of alternatives within a melodramatic space.

An aspect of a feminist vigilant is ‘…to expose ideological meanings that differently go neglected and continue to continue informative assumptions that are rough to women and other disenfranchised amicable groups’ (Dolan 1988: 17). As Faris explains of lively realism:

Because realism is formed in mimesis (which maybe competence be called textual mimicry), lively realism, with a enchanting, disturbing, though harsh quotients of sorcery within picturesque sermon – indispensably a sermon of a colonizer, given in new times picturesque novella was a European import – is a textual essence of a deficient caricature that characterizes colonial discourses of all kinds (Faris, 2002:113).

This is how lively feminism functions in these twin plays. Both playwrights yield a hybrid space in that a assembled environments, either in a physique or outward of it, can be suggested as informative constructions, though never doubted for their energy to do damage. The unpractical universe appears on a standard with element reality. By permitting ‘fictions’ or empirically unfit events to exist on a same spin as verifiable fact, it allows a spectator or a reader to acknowledge that all worldviews are radically constructions. This brings to light a mechanisms of energy that have rendered themselves undoubtedly genuine on a bodies of a women in pain, by throwing those unequivocally systems into question. What Julia practice during a hands of a secret judges is not madness. It is another viewpoint by that a universe is rendered real. As she states in Act Three, ‘My hallucinations are madness, of course, though we wish we could be with others who hallucinate also. we would still know we am insane though we would not feel so isolated. – Hallucinations are genuine we know’ (Fornes,1992:44). Julia is claiming that stupidity and realness be aligned as equal truths. Her hallucinations are both ‘madness’ and ‘real’. In this proceed Fornes constructs a space in that a universe of experimental existence is as assembled as a melodramatic spaces in that a assembly is invited to participate. Or to put it another way, both are equally real.

The theatricality, a unequivocally novella of a universe that characters inhabit, is constantly brought to light in Fefu and her Friends. The globe of reeling that is a entertainment of lively feminism is a site for reinscription, a space generated between a novella of existence and a novella of a melodramatic event. As a impression of Emma states in Fefu, ‘Life is theatre. Theatre is Life. If we’re display what life is, can be, we contingency do theatre. It’s not acting. It’s being. It’s springing onward with a powers of a spirit. It’s breathing’ (Fornes 1992: 22). In this statement, Emma is claiming entertainment for a women of a play, as a space for demonstrating a intensity new realities that can be generated by a capacities of a imagination. The act of a women ordering over a weekend (all of them pang in one proceed or another from a unpleasant effects of patriarchy), indeed their presence alone, as Moroff describes it, is adequate to reinscribe a existence in that they live. ‘In a theatre, Emma suggests, time as we know it collapses: refiguring a benefaction within entertainment is as prolific as vital a benefaction outward theatre…Their presences alone can expose what ‘can be’ (Moroff, 1996: 42).

Fornes embraces this use of a meta-theatrical and a reinscription of space in a second act of this play (Moroff 1996). In this act, 4 scenes are presented concurrently in 4 opposite spaces to an assembly that is divided into 4 groups. Each stage is steady 4 times as a assembly moves from one space to another. The outcome of this is that a assembly reunites for act 3 carrying witnessed 4 opposite versions of a play. Meaning can't sojourn immobile in this constantly changeable environment, nor can a assembly sojourn pacifist in a definition creation process. The assembly becomes complicit in generating definition and in witnessing a scenes holding place. As Moroff reminds us, their presences alone, that of a assembly in this instance, shows what can be. Without a correspondence of a assembly there would be no witness. The assembly is obliged for a following and mixed stories that play out. Multiple realities (or mixed fictions) exist during once, disallowing a seamless closure of a widespread systems of illustration of realism.

This juncture of clearly enigmatic worlds is executive to a functioning of lively feminism in Katz’s writing. In The Eisteddfod, Katz revels in a use of a meta-theatrical, juxtaposing a play universe and a genuine universe to mystify a definition creation routine for a audience. She frequently includes herself, as a author into a movement of a play. In fact, The Eisteddfod starts and ends with her voice. In a pre-recorded shred she welcomes a audience.

LALLY KATZ. Hi everyone, appreciate we for entrance to see a Eisteddfod tonight. I’m Lally Katz and we wrote it. Just for your personal interest, here are a few grant about myself. we am now vital in London and operative as a waitress. we am twenty-five years aged and we unequivocally suffer essay plays and roving my bike. My star pointer is Sagittarius and I’m creatively from New Jersey, though I’ve been vital in Australia for a past seventeen years, so I’m indeed a twin citizen. Anyway, I’ll keep it brief so we can get on with a show, though if we wish to know any some-more sum about my life, greatfully feel giveaway to email me on lallykatz@hotmail.com. No questions are too personal.

To assure we that this is not merely a play with an omniscient narrator, a impression of Lally Puppet appears median by a play.

ABOLONE. Who are you? You don’t live here.
LALLY PUPPET. Abolone, I’m Lally Katz.
LALLY PUPPET. Look, if we don’t know, afterwards it’s substantially best we don’t go into it tonight. Now because a prolonged face Abolone?
ABOLONE. we can’t make her come back.
LALLY PUPPET. we consider it’s my fault. I’ve been so bustling waitressing. It’s usually so tough to stay financially afloat in London. But I’ve neglected we guys and there’s no forgive for that. we do feel unequivocally terrible. Do we consider I’m a bad chairman Abolone? Let me cuddle you.

Finally, it is Katz, usually to endorse who is pulling a strings, who gets a final word. But even this leaves a assembly teetering precariously between a genuine and a illusory worlds.

LALLY: we call him sometimes, anticipating there will be a connection, though there never is. we don’t even know if he owns a phone. And we can’t remember a proceed to a residence anymore. Gerture sent me a postcard once, it was a design of solidified H2O lilies and a unequivocally tiny duckling. She wrote on it that she has never felt so tighten by. She didn’t send a lapse address. we demeanour for early scenes of them in my laptop and on disc. It creates me feel so sentimental that they competence have been anything, once.

She is a dangerous and pure narrator, whose appearance indispensably draws a audience’s courtesy to a fictionality of a story being told, and nonetheless her faith in a real-ness of her characters binds a assembly strangely to her creations as genuine universe beings. In this proceed a assembly are asked to acknowledge novella as an critical partial of a tellurian experience, even while identifying a construction that is this story. Magical feminism here argues ‘that to be certain about what is genuine and what is not is harder than it looks, and furthermore, that a small doubt is not altogether undesirable’ (Hegerfeldt 2002: 77). In identical conform to Fornes, Katz generates coexisting realities that a assembly contingency span in sequence to rivet with a story of a play.

Further disrupting a mimesis of realism, in The Eisteddfod Gerture and her hermit role-play many opposite situations, sketch courtesy to a informative constructed-ness of these roles. Gerture is down trodden wife, abused and unloved girlfriend, bullied sister, rape plant and in a eisteddfod itself, Lady Macbeth. She plays these fictions with comprehensive conviction, embodying them totally as she does, though with a recognition that what she is personification is nonetheless another illusory phenomenon of a probable reality. All these roles are tangible in attribute to her perspective of men, though in a proceed she picks and adult discards these role-plays (in a finish totally dispatch all these relationships) she is enacting a possibilities of re-inscription of her subjectivity, and a ultimate rejecting of a masculine codes of her culture. She carries a recognition of her colonisation by harsh outmost forces. Katz draws courtesy to this awareness.

GERTURE. Well we don’t wish to have a battle. we don’t wish to quarrel a world.
ABOLONE. Then you’ve already lost. You’re assigned already.
GERTURE. we am. I’m colonised.
ABOLONE. Do we like it? They can rape we anytime. They can lift your knickers over your conduct and fuck we usually like that. And there’s nobody there to stop them. They can pat we down in your kitchen. They smatter beat over your kitchen. Do we like that?
GERTURE. Well I’ll shun to a hills. I’ll live in a prolonged grass.
ABOLONE. They will hunt we down. And lambaste we in a dirt. They competence cut we up. Why shouldn’t they? They know you’re scared.
GERTURE. They would stop if we was crying.
ABOLONE. No they wouldn’t. They would usually go harder and harder. They like it when a locals cry. It reaffirms their victory.
GERTURE. Why do they wish to win so bad?
ABOLONE. So they don’t have to be losers. Because if they don’t keep we down afterwards it is usually a matter of time before we come into their houses and start rearranging their furniture. And maybe throwing out their aged couch.

Through this articulation, notwithstanding Gerture’s difficulty of because this happens, she is means to start a routine of dissolving a synthetic bounds that entice her identity.

Feminist speculation suggests that illustration offers or denies subjectivity by utilizing a terms of a discourse, images, and misconceptions by ideology. As a complement of representation, beliefs is associated to amicable structures not as a elementary mimetic reflection, though as a force that participates in formulating and progressing amicable arrangements (Dolan 1988: 16).

Katz self-consciously plays on a fictionality of a melodramatic eventuality to play out a colonization of a womanlike subject, though perpetuating it. The whole play occurs in a sibling’s bedroom with conjunction of them indeed entering a outward universe of a play. Gerture never is a down-trodden girlfriend; she usually imagines that she is. In this same way, she is means to suppose herself out of a childhood bedroom and into a leisure of self-determination of her subjectivity, withdrawal Abolone, a usually genuine male/female attribute she has, behind. According to Katz, she is even means to suppose herself into a reality, a existence of a outmost non-play world. For this final impulse of a play is a meta-theatrical peak, in that Gerture achieves group as a womanlike subject, wrestling herself from a hands of a playwright and withdrawal it to Katz to news on her life after a play, for she herself is absent.

In Fefu and her Friends, Fefu and Julia both grasp a recover from their pain. Fefu, in sharpened her husband’s gun, now installed with genuine bullets rather than blanks, creates a sourroundings in that Julia dies (although ambiguously a gun is not shot during Julia). This clearly imaginary genocide generates a unequivocally genuine change for Julia from life to genocide and a much-desired recover from her madness. For Fefu, perhaps, nonetheless there are many probable fictions for her as a play finishes on this event, it is a commencement of her awakening from one novella to another, a liberating act that has liberated Julia and herself. According to Moroff, ‘Julia has given adult a right to act, to be an agent, so Fefu has been forced to take on a whole weight of a actor’s role…Fefu’s violence, then, competence yield space for a opposite kind of womanlike subject, one not reduced to a intent Julia was reduced to, one not connected to masculine discourse’ (Moroff 1996:55). Less-optimistically, this finale can be deliberate a finish mutation to a male-identified universe Fefu has been seeking given a commencement of a play, a proceed to feel protected from a fictitious subjectivity of being a woman, though a serve grant to herself as object. For Gerture, an fixing with a fictitious stupidity of Lady Macbeth releases her from her half-life, for it is Gerture, not Abolone whom wins a Eisteddfod and a much-coveted one-way sheet to Moscow that is a prize.

Ultimately, it is a obscure endings of both plays, as it has been a obscure and mixed worldhoods via that lend them their strength. Meaning is never decisive or static, an ambiguity that is prolific in a ability to criticise a bound and widespread congenital systems of representation. For both writers, there is a unwavering joining to spin existence into an out and out novella to constraint and re-inscribe a enigmatic and unpleasant knowledge of vital as a lady in congenital culture. Theatre, as Emma knows so well, is life, or during slightest an indispensable instrument in perplexing to know and paint reality.



Elaine Aston (1999). Feminist Theatre Practice: A Handbook (New York: Routledge)

Elaine Aston and George Savona (1991). Theatre as Sign-System: A Semiotics of Text and Performance (London: Routledge)

Jill Dolan (1988). The Feminist Spectator as Critic (Michigan: UMI Research Press)

Penny Farfan (1997). ‘Feminism, metatheatricality, and mise-en-scene in Maria Irene

Fornes’s ‘Fefu and her Friends’’, Modern Drama 40(4): 442-454

Wendy Faris (2002). ‘The Question of a Other: Cultural Critiques of Magical Realism’,Janus Head 5.2 (Fall): 101-117

Maria Irene Forne. (1992). Fefu and her Friends (New York: Paj Publications)

Deborah R. Geis (1993). Postmodern Theatric(k)s: Monologue in Contemporary American Drama (Michigan: University of Michigan Press)

Anne Hegerfeldt (2002). ‘Contentious Contributions: Magical Realism goes British’Janus Head 5.2(Fall): 62-86

Lally Katz (2004). The Eisteddfod (Unpublished)

Diane Moroff (1996). Fornes: Theatre in a Present Tense (Michigan: University of Michigan Press)

Lois Zamora Wendy Faris, eds. (1995). Magical Realism: Theory, History, Community(London: Duke University Press)


Article source: http://www.doubledialogues.com/article/magical-feminism-the-paradoxical-pain-in-fefu-and-her-friends-by-maria-irene-fornes-and-the-eisteddfod-by-lally-katz/