: …I am in consistent pain. we don’t wish to give into it. If we do we am fearful we will never recover…It’s not physical, and it’s not sorrow. It’s unequivocally bizarre Emma, we can’t news it, and it’s unequivocally frightening…It is as if routinely there is a lubricant…not in a body…a devout lubricant…it’s tough to describe…and though it, life is a nightmare, and all is distorted… (Fornes 1992:29).
Pain, in a clarity that it will be discussed here, is a ‘not physical…not sorrow’ pain of women whose subjectivity has been colonised by a widespread complement of representation, a hegemonic force of patriarchy. It is a pain that has twisted womanlike experience, and it is a pain that both playwrights deliberate here fastener with as good as resist. Employing Elaine Aston’s idea of a ‘sphere of disturbance’ it is my goal to expose how a pain that is a knowledge of all a womanlike characters underneath care functions as a evidence tool, a means of sketch courtesy to a colonising army digest themselves painfully genuine on a womanlike subjects. Aston suggests that a feminist entertainment use competence work rigourously and ideologically as a ‘sphere of disturbance’ and within this space, representational systems (of gender, sex, class, competition etc) are a theme of (and are subjected to) this reeling (1999: 17-18).
In sequence to clarify a functioning of pain in these twin plays, we am contracting my possess singularity of lively realism, translating this literary genre to theatre, and feminism, privately feminist entertainment practice. we call this hybrid, ‘magical feminism’, and it lies within a ‘sphere of disturbance’ that Aston proposes. Feminist theory’s aim of ‘decolonising’ informative representations of women and divulgence a beliefs embedded in realism is over by a denunciation of lively realism. As Faris states:
The irreducible elements in a hybrid mode of lively realism divide a basement of management of realism, creation proceed for new forms of sermon that simulate choice ways of being to emerge. It is this destabilising of realism, that has a longstanding energy of illustration in a west, that has done lively realism an enabling sermon for a postcolonial universe (2002:113).
D’Haen states that it is a categories ‘women’ and ‘non-Western peoples’ that have been ‘traditionally released from a ‘privileged centres’ of culture, race, and gender, and therefore from a user discourses of power’ (Zamora and Faris, 1995:200). As such, both categories can be discussed as carrying been ‘colonised’. In serve to this, a twin plays underneath care ‘…emphasize a border to that alternative, frequently marginalised modes of suspicion are not limited to (post)colonial cultures, though also exist in Western settings’ (Hegerfeldt in courtesy to sorcery realism, 2002:64). In this synthesis, a hybrid form is extended in both directions, to embody women in a difficulty of colonised, and to embody entertainment in a genre of lively realism. As such, feminism, in this example, is discussed in terms of ‘decolonisation’.
Magical feminism, as a hybrid of lively realism and feminism, operates as a denunciation within a incomparable form that is feminism. Magical feminism is not a antidote or a remedy to well-spoken over pain and tie it adult easily with some illusory melodramatic techniques. Here, we will find no ‘take once a day’ lively tablet to solve all problems. Instead, lively feminism draws a gawk closer to a inconsistencies, a ugliness, a deformities and a pain, and encourages us to get right in and take a good look. It is critical to understand, in a care of lively realism as a feminist discourse, that a ‘magical’ components of lively realism are used to flourish a stipulations of denunciation and a ability to paint reality. The sorcery or abnormal acts as apparatus of defamiliarisation, foregrounding those informative ‘norms’ that are so deeply embedded that we are no longer wakeful of them, though that continue to continue a marginalisation of women. In lively feminism, ‘ontological intrusion serves a purpose of domestic and informative disruption: sorcery is mostly given as a informative corrective, requiring readers to scrutinize supposed picturesque conventions of causality, materiality, motivation’ (Zamora Faris, 1995:3). By supplementing thespian realism with lively elements, it is not a anticipation universe that is created, though rather an eventuality to enhance on a parameters of reality, and beget a globe of disturbance. This, as we will go on to be demonstrated, does not always have a certain outcome, though it does emanate a detonation that brings to light those mechanisms that have generated a pain in a initial place. In both examples, that resource is privately a congenital omnipotence that has inscripted itself on a bodies of a womanlike characters in both verbatim and non-literal ways, done perceptible by a lively feminist gaze. The lively feminist takes this space of reeling as her starting indicate and does not obsess over her symptoms, though rather attempts to exhibit a environments that have precipitated them. Magical feminism, then, is one plan that can be employed by feminist thespian practitioners to grasp decolonisation of a womanlike subject.
I have selected twin womanlike playwrights, Maria Irene Fornes and Lally Katz, to clarify how lively feminism functions as a apparatus to lift courtesy to a oft-unrecognised modes of suspicion that continue a marginalisation of women. It is a ambiguity of their writing, a co-existence of plural worldhoods, a formidable and enigmatic womanlike characters and a strenuous appearance of enigmatic pain that leads me to lift these twin plays together, notwithstanding these plays carrying been created scarcely thirty years apart.
Fefu and Her Friends by Maria Irene Fornes is a play that is quick entrance a thirtieth anniversary of a initial opening as an off-off Broadway show, and is now deliberate an avant-garde, someday feminist classical (Farfan 1997; Moroff 1996; Geis 1993). The play, set in a 1930’s in New England, sees 8 educated, mostly middle-class, women ordering over a weekend to arrange a display per education. Fefu is a stewardess of a weekend and it is her ‘constant pain’, staying in some unknowable partial of herself, along with a earthy nonetheless hallucinatory pain of a circle chair firm Julia, that is a concentration of this play. All 8 women perceptible pain (emotional, physical, spiritual, and/or political) in some proceed or another. The play starts with a women nearing during Fefu’s home. They are all famous to any other in one proceed or another, and share connectors such as past insinuate relationships, or being aged university friends. Fefu starts by dogmatic her dread of women and her welfare for masculine company, so sourroundings adult a extraordinary juncture to a events maturation around her. She stays on corner via a women’s arrival, behaving adult to a women who do not know her well, being intentionally provocative with her big, confidant statements, wielding her husband’s gun with shocking casualness. As a play unfolds, it is apparent that a ordering of 8 women in this proceed is a play and movement of a play, as they all onslaught to come to terms with their ‘female-ness’ in a congenital system. As a women’s relations play out in Fefu’s home, Julia and Fefu lift one another ever closer to confronting their fear of and inability to be ‘embodied’ as women, and this eventually leads to Julia’s death.
Along with this classical play we have selected a unequivocally new play, The Eisteddfod, by Lally Katz, achieved for a initial time during a eccentric entertainment venue, The Store Room in North Fitzroy, Melbourne, Australia, in Jun and Jul of 2004, and many recently in 2005 during a New York Fringe Festival. This is a story of a hermit and sister, Abolone and Gerture who are both in their thirties nonetheless sealed in a half-life between childhood and adulthood after a aroused genocide of their relatives in a tree pruning accident. The hermit and sister work towards a opening of Macbeth for a internal Eisteddfod, an endeavour Abolone has done catastrophic attempts during winning given childhood. He now invites his sister to participate, in an try to lift her behind from a together universe in that she is an hypothetical schoolteacher, and a place she is spending some-more and some-more time, to a ostracism of Abolone. It is Gerture’s pain that forms a centre of this comment and it is by her pain that she is means to commence a redemptive act that eventually frees her from their claustrophobic bedroom and Abolone’s control. The events of this play all exist in a rarely gossamer attribute to existence as a siblings play out ‘scenes’ as they wish or suppose their lives competence have happened. But these are characters whose lives have never indeed ‘happened’. They build worlds within worlds, prolongation a space of drop and desire, though though any discernible thoughtfulness in a genuine world. Abolone plays Gerture’s violent boyfriend, Ian. Gerture plays ‘Mother’ to a needy Abolone, and they play their relatives for one another to imagine, or even remember, how their parent’s attribute competence have looked. Over a march of a play, Gerture disappears serve into her possess hypothetical ‘school’ world, withdrawal a pessimistic and widespread Abolone behind. It is a Eisteddfod that he uses as a device to lift her behind to him, though it becomes apparent that Gerture has outgrown a hypothetical worlds played out in their common bedroom. As yet, as with all of Katz’s writing, it stays unpublished.
To start with, a lively feminist reading of both plays interprets a instances of pain as verbatim events. In so doing, paradoxically and disturbingly, both plays inspire obscure readings. This is a spin during that lively feminism operates. Magical feminism permits a digest of a empirically impossible, possible. Neither story nor embellishment speculation are germane to bargain these plays. In fact, ‘Fornes privately denies a use of allegory’ (Moroff 1996:46). Both writers are enlivening a reading and examination of a events as verbatim and as a outcome ambiguity is a required and preferred side effect. This is because, as Hegerfeldt records in propinquity to sorcery realism, in lively feminism, ‘The twin duty of saving opposite universe views while concurrently deconstructing all claims to concept validity’ permits all sorts of fictions to spin ‘real’ on a spin of content or performance, and during a same time, by a use of meta-theatrical strategies and a misdemeanour of thespian techniques, doubt is expel on a trustworthiness of a content (Hegerfeldt 2002: 65). For example, most has been done of a fractured identities of a characters in Fefu, their shop-worn psyches, and a always absent nonetheless ever benefaction masculine characters (Geis 1993; Farfan 1997). What we am attempting to expose is something some-more difficult and distant simpler. Events are what they are. We don’t need to appreciate a impression of a circle chair firm Julia as pang from a Freudian excitable condition in that she is visited by furious hallucinations in a form of masculine judges. Julia is wheel-chair firm given she is, either a doctors can find anything wrong or not, and she is visited by tangible judges, seen or unseen, who indeed make her trust she is a disaster given she is a woman, and bluster her life.
As such, what lively feminism does by a comprehensive literalisation of a word (making embellishment genuine in other words), defamiliarisation and use of meta-theatricality, is to lift pain to a aspect of reality. It gives epitome notions of pain form and in such a proceed provides this pain with a space in that it can be enacted, identified, explored, even if not resolved. In serve to this, a preferred outcome of these techniques is to plea assembly expectations and rendezvous by a bizarre diagnosis of denunciation and a spatio-temporal pivot of a melodramatic event. This is essential to a lively feminist intention, for
A play, that requires a declare to ‘re-examine a rules’ of play final her/his partnership and active appearance in a prolongation of meaning. Such a review hurdles a spectator’s propinquity to both a thespian universe and a tangible world. It is a routine of rendezvous whereby what is famous becomes ‘unknown’. (Aston Savona 1991: 33)
In this way, Aston’s globe of reeling functions to plea systems of illustration within a time and space of a melodramatic event, and by extension, to plea a informative systems of illustration that continue a colonization of a womanlike subject.
All of a women in Fefu with a difference of Emma clear their pain in one proceed or another and these ‘various struggles to live this ‘female’ space comment for roughly all a thespian and comment action’ (Morof,1996:37). Of good seductiveness to a lively feminist use is because all this has come to pass. What are a conditions that have generated this state of affairs? Why is this woman, indeed because are all a women, in pain? Besides a apparent examples of Fefu and Julia’s pain, there is a nightmarish pain of Cindy’s dreams in that she is a plant of masculine energy by woe and ‘cure’; Christina’s privacy and rejecting of cognisance with her womanlike friends; a unpleasant finale of a attribute between Paula and Cecilia; and finally, Sue’s recounting of a pain inflicted as punishment on 3 women with whom she attended university, ‘punished for their probity as good as for their artistic and egghead efforts’ (Moroff 1996:53).
For a lively feminist interpretation of these plays, what is critical is a idea of a widespread hegemonies as constructions, fictions that can be re-written and divested of their power.
Magical realist texts stress a proceed in that all modes of suspicion and perception, be they rational-scientific or other, can usually ever yield constructions of a universe – that means that universe views are never comprehensive and universal, though indispensably provisional and open to rider (Hegerfeldt, 2002: 65).
It is novella itself that can describe a devising of a opposite worldview and beget decolonised systems of representation. Fornes achieves this in Fefu
Fornes’s heterogeneous proceed to form is quite rewarding for a women in this play; a musical space ensuing from realism and a coexisting bursting of realism creates an effervescent melodramatic territory. In sequence to try women characters’ appearance in particular, Fornes offers a melodramatic space generally supportive to a theatre’s intensity as an choice space, partial real, partial novella (Moroff 1996: 36).
As an prolongation of this, a hierarchy of domain and centre is also incompetent to claim itself. For a lively feminist this means that a doubt of marginalisation of a womanlike theme is brought to light, importantly to capacitate this binary structure to be denied a power. Where is a domain and where is a centre in this effervescent melodramatic territory? ‘The evil stratagem of lively realist novella is that a twin apart comment modes never conduct to arrange themselves into any kind of hierarchy’ (Slemon in Zamora Faris, 1995:410). Instead we have an effervescent space, a globe of reeling that allows for a construction and deconstruction of mixed fictions, observation them all as concurrently genuine and imaginary and therefore open to negotiation. As Slemon writes, ‘This conflict is represented in a denunciation of exegesis by a foregrounding of twin hostile discursive systems, with conjunction handling to subordinate or enclose a other. This postulated antithesis forestalls a probability of interpretive closure by any act of naturalizing a content to an determined complement of representation’ (Slemon in Zamora Faris 1995:410). In this way, these lively feminist plays ‘de-naturalise’ realism, facing closure of a meaning-making routine and permitting for a talented renderings of alternatives within a melodramatic space.
An aspect of a feminist vigilant is ‘…to expose ideological meanings that differently go neglected and continue to continue informative assumptions that are rough to women and other disenfranchised amicable groups’ (Dolan 1988: 17). As Faris explains of lively realism:
Because realism is formed in mimesis (which maybe competence be called textual mimicry), lively realism, with a enchanting, disturbing, though harsh quotients of sorcery within picturesque sermon – indispensably a sermon of a colonizer, given in new times picturesque novella was a European import – is a textual essence of a deficient caricature that characterizes colonial discourses of all kinds (Faris, 2002:113).
This is how lively feminism functions in these twin plays. Both playwrights yield a hybrid space in that a assembled environments, either in a physique or outward of it, can be suggested as informative constructions, though never doubted for their energy to do damage. The unpractical universe appears on a standard with element reality. By permitting ‘fictions’ or empirically unfit events to exist on a same spin as verifiable fact, it allows a spectator or a reader to acknowledge that all worldviews are radically constructions. This brings to light a mechanisms of energy that have rendered themselves undoubtedly genuine on a bodies of a women in pain, by throwing those unequivocally systems into question. What Julia practice during a hands of a secret judges is not madness. It is another viewpoint by that a universe is rendered real. As she states in Act Three, ‘My hallucinations are madness, of course, though we wish we could be with others who hallucinate also. we would still know we am insane though we would not feel so isolated. – Hallucinations are genuine we know’ (Fornes,1992:44). Julia is claiming that stupidity and realness be aligned as equal truths. Her hallucinations are both ‘madness’ and ‘real’. In this proceed Fornes constructs a space in that a universe of experimental existence is as assembled as a melodramatic spaces in that a assembly is invited to participate. Or to put it another way, both are equally real.
The theatricality, a unequivocally novella of a universe that characters inhabit, is constantly brought to light in Fefu and her Friends. The globe of reeling that is a entertainment of lively feminism is a site for reinscription, a space generated between a novella of existence and a novella of a melodramatic event. As a impression of Emma states in Fefu, ‘Life is theatre. Theatre is Life. If we’re display what life is, can be, we contingency do theatre. It’s not acting. It’s being. It’s springing onward with a powers of a spirit. It’s breathing’ (Fornes 1992: 22). In this statement, Emma is claiming entertainment for a women of a play, as a space for demonstrating a intensity new realities that can be generated by a capacities of a imagination. The act of a women ordering over a weekend (all of them pang in one proceed or another from a unpleasant effects of patriarchy), indeed their presence alone, as Moroff describes it, is adequate to reinscribe a existence in that they live. ‘In a theatre, Emma suggests, time as we know it collapses: refiguring a benefaction within entertainment is as prolific as vital a benefaction outward theatre…Their presences alone can expose what ‘can be’ (Moroff, 1996: 42).
Fornes embraces this use of a meta-theatrical and a reinscription of space in a second act of this play (Moroff 1996). In this act, 4 scenes are presented concurrently in 4 opposite spaces to an assembly that is divided into 4 groups. Each stage is steady 4 times as a assembly moves from one space to another. The outcome of this is that a assembly reunites for act 3 carrying witnessed 4 opposite versions of a play. Meaning can't sojourn immobile in this constantly changeable environment, nor can a assembly sojourn pacifist in a definition creation process. The assembly becomes complicit in generating definition and in witnessing a scenes holding place. As Moroff reminds us, their presences alone, that of a assembly in this instance, shows what can be. Without a correspondence of a assembly there would be no witness. The assembly is obliged for a following and mixed stories that play out. Multiple realities (or mixed fictions) exist during once, disallowing a seamless closure of a widespread systems of illustration of realism.
This juncture of clearly enigmatic worlds is executive to a functioning of lively feminism in Katz’s writing. In The Eisteddfod, Katz revels in a use of a meta-theatrical, juxtaposing a play universe and a genuine universe to mystify a definition creation routine for a audience. She frequently includes herself, as a author into a movement of a play. In fact, The Eisteddfod starts and ends with her voice. In a pre-recorded shred she welcomes a audience.
LALLY KATZ. Hi everyone, appreciate we for entrance to see a Eisteddfod tonight. I’m Lally Katz and we wrote it. Just for your personal interest, here are a few grant about myself. we am now vital in London and operative as a waitress. we am twenty-five years aged and we unequivocally suffer essay plays and roving my bike. My star pointer is Sagittarius and I’m creatively from New Jersey, though I’ve been vital in Australia for a past seventeen years, so I’m indeed a twin citizen. Anyway, I’ll keep it brief so we can get on with a show, though if we wish to know any some-more sum about my life, greatfully feel giveaway to email me on firstname.lastname@example.org. No questions are too personal.
To assure we that this is not merely a play with an omniscient narrator, a impression of Lally Puppet appears median by a play.
ABOLONE. Who are you? You don’t live here.
LALLY PUPPET. Abolone, I’m Lally Katz.
LALLY PUPPET. Look, if we don’t know, afterwards it’s substantially best we don’t go into it tonight. Now because a prolonged face Abolone?
ABOLONE. we can’t make her come back.
LALLY PUPPET. we consider it’s my fault. I’ve been so bustling waitressing. It’s usually so tough to stay financially afloat in London. But I’ve neglected we guys and there’s no forgive for that. we do feel unequivocally terrible. Do we consider I’m a bad chairman Abolone? Let me cuddle you.
Finally, it is Katz, usually to endorse who is pulling a strings, who gets a final word. But even this leaves a assembly teetering precariously between a genuine and a illusory worlds.
: we call him sometimes, anticipating there will be a connection, though there never is. we don’t even know if he owns a phone. And we can’t remember a proceed to a residence anymore. Gerture sent me a postcard once, it was a design of solidified H2O lilies and a unequivocally tiny duckling. She wrote on it that she has never felt so tighten by. She didn’t send a lapse address. we demeanour for early scenes of them in my laptop and on disc. It creates me feel so sentimental that they competence have been anything, once.
She is a dangerous and pure narrator, whose appearance indispensably draws a audience’s courtesy to a fictionality of a story being told, and nonetheless her faith in a real-ness of her characters binds a assembly strangely to her creations as genuine universe beings. In this proceed a assembly are asked to acknowledge novella as an critical partial of a tellurian experience, even while identifying a construction that is this story. Magical feminism here argues ‘that to be certain about what is genuine and what is not is harder than it looks, and furthermore, that a small doubt is not altogether undesirable’ (Hegerfeldt 2002: 77). In identical conform to Fornes, Katz generates coexisting realities that a assembly contingency span in sequence to rivet with a story of a play.
Further disrupting a mimesis of realism, in The Eisteddfod Gerture and her hermit role-play many opposite situations, sketch courtesy to a informative constructed-ness of these roles. Gerture is down trodden wife, abused and unloved girlfriend, bullied sister, rape plant and in a eisteddfod itself, Lady Macbeth. She plays these fictions with comprehensive conviction, embodying them totally as she does, though with a recognition that what she is personification is nonetheless another illusory phenomenon of a probable reality. All these roles are tangible in attribute to her perspective of men, though in a proceed she picks and adult discards these role-plays (in a finish totally dispatch all these relationships) she is enacting a possibilities of re-inscription of her subjectivity, and a ultimate rejecting of a masculine codes of her culture. She carries a recognition of her colonisation by harsh outmost forces. Katz draws courtesy to this awareness.
GERTURE. Well we don’t wish to have a battle. we don’t wish to quarrel a world.
ABOLONE. Then you’ve already lost. You’re assigned already.
GERTURE. we am. I’m colonised.
ABOLONE. Do we like it? They can rape we anytime. They can lift your knickers over your conduct and fuck we usually like that. And there’s nobody there to stop them. They can pat we down in your kitchen. They smatter beat over your kitchen. Do we like that?
GERTURE. Well I’ll shun to a hills. I’ll live in a prolonged grass.
ABOLONE. They will hunt we down. And lambaste we in a dirt. They competence cut we up. Why shouldn’t they? They know you’re scared.
GERTURE. They would stop if we was crying.
ABOLONE. No they wouldn’t. They would usually go harder and harder. They like it when a locals cry. It reaffirms their victory.
GERTURE. Why do they wish to win so bad?
ABOLONE. So they don’t have to be losers. Because if they don’t keep we down afterwards it is usually a matter of time before we come into their houses and start rearranging their furniture. And maybe throwing out their aged couch.
Through this articulation, notwithstanding Gerture’s difficulty of because this happens, she is means to start a routine of dissolving a synthetic bounds that entice her identity.
Feminist speculation suggests that illustration offers or denies subjectivity by utilizing a terms of a discourse, images, and misconceptions by ideology. As a complement of representation, beliefs is associated to amicable structures not as a elementary mimetic reflection, though as a force that participates in formulating and progressing amicable arrangements (Dolan 1988: 16).
Katz self-consciously plays on a fictionality of a melodramatic eventuality to play out a colonization of a womanlike subject, though perpetuating it. The whole play occurs in a sibling’s bedroom with conjunction of them indeed entering a outward universe of a play. Gerture never is a down-trodden girlfriend; she usually imagines that she is. In this same way, she is means to suppose herself out of a childhood bedroom and into a leisure of self-determination of her subjectivity, withdrawal Abolone, a usually genuine male/female attribute she has, behind. According to Katz, she is even means to suppose herself into a reality, a existence of a outmost non-play world. For this final impulse of a play is a meta-theatrical peak, in that Gerture achieves group as a womanlike subject, wrestling herself from a hands of a playwright and withdrawal it to Katz to news on her life after a play, for she herself is absent.
In Fefu and her Friends, Fefu and Julia both grasp a recover from their pain. Fefu, in sharpened her husband’s gun, now installed with genuine bullets rather than blanks, creates a sourroundings in that Julia dies (although ambiguously a gun is not shot during Julia). This clearly imaginary genocide generates a unequivocally genuine change for Julia from life to genocide and a much-desired recover from her madness. For Fefu, perhaps, nonetheless there are many probable fictions for her as a play finishes on this event, it is a commencement of her awakening from one novella to another, a liberating act that has liberated Julia and herself. According to Moroff, ‘Julia has given adult a right to act, to be an agent, so Fefu has been forced to take on a whole weight of a actor’s role…Fefu’s violence, then, competence yield space for a opposite kind of womanlike subject, one not reduced to a intent Julia was reduced to, one not connected to masculine discourse’ (Moroff 1996:55). Less-optimistically, this finale can be deliberate a finish mutation to a male-identified universe Fefu has been seeking given a commencement of a play, a proceed to feel protected from a fictitious subjectivity of being a woman, though a serve grant to herself as object. For Gerture, an fixing with a fictitious stupidity of Lady Macbeth releases her from her half-life, for it is Gerture, not Abolone whom wins a Eisteddfod and a much-coveted one-way sheet to Moscow that is a prize.
Ultimately, it is a obscure endings of both plays, as it has been a obscure and mixed worldhoods via that lend them their strength. Meaning is never decisive or static, an ambiguity that is prolific in a ability to criticise a bound and widespread congenital systems of representation. For both writers, there is a unwavering joining to spin existence into an out and out novella to constraint and re-inscribe a enigmatic and unpleasant knowledge of vital as a lady in congenital culture. Theatre, as Emma knows so well, is life, or during slightest an indispensable instrument in perplexing to know and paint reality.
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Elaine Aston and George Savona (1991). Theatre as Sign-System: A Semiotics of Text and Performance (London: Routledge)
Jill Dolan (1988). The Feminist Spectator as Critic (Michigan: UMI Research Press)
Penny Farfan (1997). ‘Feminism, metatheatricality, and mise-en-scene in Maria Irene
Fornes’s ‘Fefu and her Friends’’, Modern Drama 40(4): 442-454
Wendy Faris (2002). ‘The Question of a Other: Cultural Critiques of Magical Realism’,Janus Head 5.2 (Fall): 101-117
Maria Irene Forne. (1992). Fefu and her Friends (New York: Paj Publications)
Deborah R. Geis (1993). Postmodern Theatric(k)s: Monologue in Contemporary American Drama (Michigan: University of Michigan Press)
Anne Hegerfeldt (2002). ‘Contentious Contributions: Magical Realism goes British’Janus Head 5.2(Fall): 62-86
Lally Katz (2004). The Eisteddfod (Unpublished)
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Lois Zamora Wendy Faris, eds. (1995). Magical Realism: Theory, History, Community(London: Duke University Press)
Article source: http://www.doubledialogues.com/article/magical-feminism-the-paradoxical-pain-in-fefu-and-her-friends-by-maria-irene-fornes-and-the-eisteddfod-by-lally-katz/