نوامبر 302014
 

موضوعی که مورد علاقه همه طراحان بوده و هست، مبحث طراحی از چهره است. بسیاری از افراد حتی پیش از آغاز به طراحی، تلاشهای فراوانی در این زمینه داشته و فعالیتها و تمرینات مربوط به طراحی را منحصر به موفقیت در ترسیم چهره می دانند. برای طراحی از چهره لازم است که مدل مناسبی داشته باشید. شما می توانید از اشخاص اطراف خودتان درخواست کنید تا به عنوان سوژه با شما همکاری کنند، در غیر این صورت به کمک آینه ای به اندازه متوسط (که از چهره خودتان کوچکتر نباشد) به طراحی از چهره خودتان بپردازید. پس از کسب مهارت کافی، می توانید از روی تصاویر و عکسها نیز طراحی کنید ولی در هر حال تأکید ما بر طراحی از سوژه عینی است، نه ذهنی

scl طراحی از چهره

Article source: http://www.zanrooz.com/1388/06/%D8%B7%D8%B1%D8%A7%D8%AD%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D8%B2-%DA%86%D9%87%D8%B1%D9%87/

نوامبر 302014
 

7np9284b1xyib812jwht نقاشی چهره 

نمونه نقاشی ها

نقاشی چهره از روی عکس با مداد کنته – بهترین هدیه روز مادر – پدر – سالگرد ازدواج

تلفن سفارشات:     ۰۹۱۲۳۹۴۱۳۸۰

برچسب‌ها: گالری نقاشی مداد کنته پرتره پیکر و بدن گوگوش نقاشی, چهره, مداد کنته, بهترین هدیه, روز مادر
ادامه مطلب

Article source: http://www.chehrehsazi.blogfa.com/

نوامبر 302014
 

به نام خدای زیبایی ها

آذر  1393

09111757007

طراحی از چهره زنده یاد مرتضی پاشایی توسط رضا رشیدی 

در 23 آبان 1393

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لطفا قبل از سفارش سیاه قلم چهره  توضیحات را در مورد نحوه سفارش دادن مطالعه بفرمایید     

 

توضیحات :

 

طراحی از چهره شما  با   5000  تومان   فرصت استثنایی 

===================================

دوستانی که امکان حضور  برای طراحی زنده ندارید میتونید

عکستون  رو از طریق ایمیل برای من بفرستید 

اونو براتون طراحی میکنم و با پست پیشتاز براتون ارسال میکنم . پس خیلی راحت میتونید یک طراحی

از چهره خودتون داشته باشید ضمن اینکه مبلغ بسیار ناچیزی که   فعلا   برای این کار در نظر 

گرفتم هم براتون سنگین نیست . من که خودم دنبال اینجور فرصتهام اگه سراغ دارید بگید . 

طراحی از چهره شما   با   5000    تومان 

…………………………………………..

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یک عکس از چهره خودتون یا شخص مورد نظر که به تشخیص خودتون قشنگ و واضح است و

دوست دارید ازش طراحی بشه رو همراه با اسم و شماره تماستون  به آدرس  

 

rashidi7007@yahoo.com

ایمیل کرده و 

بعد تاییدش برای سیاه قلم پاسخ ایمیلتونو میدم یا تماس میگیرم  که میشه اونو کار کرد یا نه

که معمولا عکس ها خوبند چون انتخاب شده هستند .

 از طریق viber و line و facebook و watsup و …هم میتونید . 

 

مبلغ 5000 تومان  هم

+ 12.000 تومان هزینه بسته بندی ایمن اثر و  پست پیشتاز به هر نقطه کشور 

 که مجموعا 17.000 تومان است

( درصورت سفارش کار پنج هزارتومانی )  به یکی از این شماره حساب وکارت ها

 به شماره حساب بانک ملت  274798730     کارت  6104337082274315

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و شماره حساب سیبا بانک ملی  0103283007008    کارت  6037991827524574

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به نام   رضا امان زاده رشیدی

واریز کرده و مشخصات دقیق پرداختی را

همراه با آدرس دقیق  و کد پستی و شماره تماس گیرنده  برای ارسال با پست پیشتاز 

در هر نقطه کشور به من اطلاع بدید .

مطمئنم که راضی خواهید بود  

========================================================

در ایامی که مناسبت های مهم در پیش روست مثل روز زن . مرد . عید نوروز و …  سفارش خود را زودتر  

به ثبت برسونید تا به ترافیک نخورید و کار به موقع به دستتون برسه

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در کمترین زمان با حداقل هزینه در هر جا که باشید اصل اثر طراحی از چهره شما نزد شماست این کار رو 

من با عشق به کارم و مهارتی که خدا بهم لطف کرده و تجربه 25  ساله برای دوستانعزیز انجام میدم 

مبلغش خیلی کمه ( بقول بعضی دوستان ! ) ولی راضیم چون

هدف و کارمو دوست دارم . نمونه آثارمو حتما و کامل

در وبلاگم ببینید و نظر هم بدید .  اگه سوال یا نقطه مبهمی براتون بود میتونید با

  7007  175  0911   

 و 7007  175  0933  یا با  01732157320

  رضا رشیدی …..  و آدرس :  گرگان . گلشهر شمالی

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هزینه بسته بندی ایمن اثر  و ارسال از طریق پست  پیشتاز اون به هر نقطه کشور

حدود 12.000 تومان است که 

به قیمت اثر  اضافه میشه و فقط شما بسته ارسالی رو  از مامور پست تحویل میگیرید .

تا چندین سفارش همزمان و ارسال آنها به یک آدرس  فقط یک هزینه پست پیشتاز 

را شامل می شود .

برای عزیزان خارج از کشور هم با پست سفارشی هزینه حدود 40000 تومان است که با توجه به کشور مقصد از پست استعلام می گردد  و از یک هفته تا دوهفته زمان خواهد برد .

دوستانی  که فقط تصویر طراحی رو میخوان براشون ایمیل بشه هزینه ارسال ندارند

 فقط هزینه خود سیاه قلم و  3.000   تومان بابت عکس و ایمیل کردنش پرداخت میکنن یعنی 8.000 تومان. 

 

! طراحی از چهره شما  با 5000 تومان  به دوستان خود نیز بگویید !!

با نظرات سازنده شما کاملاموافقم .

 

سایز  طراحی ها  :

 

کارسیاه قلم چهره  در مبالغ   5   10   و 15 تومان  در مقوای  ابعاد 25  در 35  سانت انجام میشه  و

در مبالغ 20 و بالاتر تا ابعاد  35 در 50 سانت هم قابل اجراست .

جنس کاغذ هم از نوع مقوای مخصوص طراحی است و قابل قاب گرفتن  مثل مقوای  اشتنباخ و …

لطفا پس از تایید عکستون وجه پرداخت بشه و از واریز وجه بدون هماهنگی خودداری کنید .

 

 البته اگه دوستان بخوان چهرشونو در مبالغ بیشتر در سیاه قلم  و

تکنیک های دیگه مثل مدادرنگی  از 50 به بالا و دو رنگ کنته قهوه ای و

 مشکی  از 50 به بالا یا در تابلو نقاشی رنگ روغن هم از  200  به 

بالا براشون کار میکنم . 

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کسب اطلاعات دقیقتر همین الان الان 09111757007  رضا رشیدی

 

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www.rezarashidi.com  

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ثبت سفارش سیاه قلم چهره شما هم اکنون 09111757007  رضا رشیدی

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www.rezarashidi.com    بهترین طراح چهره که میشناسید آیا در دسترستان است ؟

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طراحی سیاه قلم چهره کودکان و همه عزیزان شما توسط رضا رشیدی

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سفارش آنلاین و فوری در مناسبت ها و اجرای زنده در مراسمات خاص

 

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تابلو نقاشی و سیاه قلم چهره شما در گالری نقاشی ماه نگار

 09111757007  www.mahnegar.org 

هدیه ای ماندگار از گالری نقاشی ماه نگار

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reza rashidi

www.rezarashidi.com 

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گالری نقاشی ماه نگار  www.rezarashidi.com 

رضا رشیدی

طراحی و نقاشی از چهره شما بطور زنده و یا از روی عکس شما

09111757007

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ثبت لحظه ای از دوران شیرین زندگی با مداد طراحی 

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سیاه قلم چهره شما با مداد های معمولی و کنته های رنگی و ذغالی

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زیبایی چهره خودتونو در کار سیاه قلم تجربه کنید www.rezarashidi.com 

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تابلوی سیاه قلم چهره شما تنوعی بزرگ در دکوراسیون فضای زندگی شماست

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در مناسبتهای مهمتر مثل روز مادر و روز مرد و … زودتر سفارش خود را به ثبت برسانید .

 www.rezarashidi.com 

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طراحی سیاه قلم از چهره شما ثبت سفارش بصورت آنلاین و دریافت اثر در کمترین زمان

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تا این وبلاگو گم نکردید سفارش سیاه قلم چهره خودتونو بدید .

( توضیحات اول وبلاگ و نحوه دقیق سفارش دادنو بخونین ) www.rezarashidi.com 

09111757007  رضا رشیدی

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برچسب‌ها: طراحی, نقاشی, سیاه قلم, گالری نقاشی ماه نگار, رضا رشیدی

Article source: http://www.mahnegar.org/

نوامبر 302014
 

On this page, I’ll plead blueprint faces and also a rough face sketches that were stepping stones to a final colourless drawing.


billiecprt250x340 Drawing Faces

This is my strange combination of Billie Holiday. For serve sum on this drawing, see drawing clothes.


Image #1 next shows the proportions of a face. However, these proportions are usually germane if we are looking “straight-on” during a face.

Image #2 is one of my preliminary face sketches of Billie Holiday. Her conduct is slanted back. This change in position will change a proportions.

To denote this change in proportions, I’ve drawn a line by a bottom of her nose in Image #3.

Because a conduct is slanted back, a stretch between a nose and a chin is elongated, while a stretch from a nose ceiling is shortened. (This is called foreshortening or perspective).

Granted, her mouth is open, that elongates a reduce stretch even some-more so. However, if a mouth were closed, a stretch from a nose to a chin would still be elongated from a ubiquitous proportions seen in #1.

drawing faces 1b 150x192Lc Drawing Faces
drawingfaces 2 150x192Lc Drawing Faces
drawingfaces 3 150x192Lc Drawing Faces


Compare Image #3 and Image #1. The stretch from nose to chin is longer in #3 than in #1. This is since a conduct in Image #3 is slanted backwards.

More on Drawing Faces and Perspective

When a conduct is slanted backwards, a chin is closer to you, while a front is serve away. Perspective makes objects closer to we seem larger, while objects that are serve divided from we seem smaller.

Look during a simplified examples next to see how viewpoint (also called Foreshortening) can change facial proportions.

drawingfaces A 150x194L Drawing Faces
drawingfaces B 150x194L Drawing Faces
drawingfaces C 150x194ML Drawing Faces


Look during a stretch between a nose and a chin in all 3 drawings. Note that when a face is looking downward (B), a reduce partial of a face becomes slight since it is decrease divided from you. The front is incomparable since it is closer to you.

When looking ceiling (C), a chin appears bigger since it is closer to you. The front appears smaller since it is serve divided from you.


Regardless of a fact that a tellurian conduct changes positions,
when training how to pull faces, always come back
to that elementary “straight-on” set of proportions 
so that we have a anxiety indicate to work from.


Learning to understanding with foreshortening involves not usually a face, though a whole figure, that we can see on this page about foreshortening. It is a essential component in creation your drawings demeanour realistic.

Drawing faces is mostly pragmatic to be some-more difficult than it unequivocally is. As with anything, use will learn we to be gentle with facial proportions. If we need someone to use on, because not pull your self-portrait by looking during yourself in a mirror.


Once again, keep it simple. Learn to pull what we see.
Your eye will beam you.


billiecprt250x340 2 Drawing Faces


drawingfaces 4 225x266c Drawing Faces

Here are some pencil rough facial studies we did to arrive during a final colourless blueprint above. 

  1. I settle a elementary outline of a face.
  2. My significance is not to emanate a minute duplication of a face, though rather it is an romantic response to a face. In other words, we am not blueprint each tooth in her mouth.


Think about it. When we demeanour during someone grin during you,
you see the smile, though we don’t count each tooth.
Remember this when we are blueprint faces.

What we wish to promulgate to a spectator is the essence of a person. Therefore, when blueprint faces, infrequently sum are included. Sometimes sum are omitted. Sometimes pointed sum are accentuated – whatever serves a blueprint best . . . whatever elicits a strongest emotion. 


drawingfaces 5 225x269c Drawing Faces

Here I’m starting to fill in a image
using lights and darks.


drawingfaces 6 225x268c Drawing Faces

In this face sketch, a investigate in lights and darks is apropos some-more concentrated. Note how picturesque a mouth is commencement to look.

Lips, teeth and tongue work in harmony, nonetheless a spectator is not constricted by details. Ironically, a spectator sees sum that are not there.

Drawing faces like this depends on close observation. You have to learn what to put in and what to leave out. Notice how genuine a tongue looks . . . nonetheless it is usually simply suggested.


Note a cross-hatched area next a mouth to conclude a chin. (See some-more on cross-hatching here.) 

I’ve also introduced some earrings, and plead their significance below. 


drawingfaces 7 225x290Arc Drawing Faces

Another rough drawing. I’ve used a same technique regarding lights and darks. I only polished things more. I’ve malleable a nose, and we have tangible a cheeks and a chin with lights and darks (not with lines).

I’ve motionless to supplement a earrings for dual reasons.

  1. To deliver contrasts and to supplement thespian interest.
  2. The arrow indicates where we have imposed a shade expel from a earring. By following a contours of her face and neck, this shadow gives three-dimensional definition to this area of her face.

Also note a several rough drawings we did of earrings.


Detailed Step-by-Step Instruction

I have always believed that a best approach to learn art is to lay and watch an artist during work. 

If we are meddlesome in serve exploring a minute aspects of blueprint faces, check out my downloadable video e-book called How To Draw Self-Portraits. 


To hunt my site, enter your hunt tenure in a box below, and click on a Search button. (Google ads might seem during a tip of a formula page … your hunt formula will be only below.)

Logo 25wht Drawing Faces 


Return from Drawing Faces to Learn To Draw Expressively Home Page 

Grab those pencils from Blick Art Materials Drawing Faces
and burst aboard a Learn-to-Draw Express!



Article source: http://www.learn-to-draw-expressively.com/drawing-faces.html

نوامبر 302014
 

280px Staircase perspective Perspective (graphical)

Part of a array on
Graphical projection
150px Axonometric projection.svg Perspective (graphical)

Perspective (from Latin: perspicere to see through) in a distinguished humanities is an estimate representation, on a prosaic aspect (such as paper), of an design as it is seen by a eye. The dual many evil facilities of viewpoint are that objects are smaller as their stretch from a spectator increases; that they are foreshortened, ie that a stretch of an object’s magnitude along a line of steer are comparatively shorter than magnitude across a line of sight.

Overview[edit]

210px Perspectiva 1.svg Perspective (graphical)

210px Perspectiva 2.svg Perspective (graphical)

Linear viewpoint always works by representing a light that passes from a entertainment by an hypothetical rectangle (the painting), to a viewer’s eye. It is matching to a spectator looking by a window and portrayal what is seen directly onto a windowpane. If beheld from a same symbol as a windowpane was painted, a embellished design would be matching to what was seen by a unpainted window. Each embellished intent in a entertainment is a flat, scaled down chronicle of a intent on a other side of a window.[1] Because any apportionment of a embellished intent lies on a loyal line from a viewer’s eye to a homogeneous apportionment of a genuine intent it represents, a spectator can't know (sans abyss perception) any disproportion between a embellished entertainment on a windowpane and a viewpoint of a genuine scene. All viewpoint drawings assume a spectator is a certain stretch divided from a drawing. Objects are scaled relations to that viewer. Additionally, an intent is mostly not scaled evenly: a round mostly appears as an ellipse and a block can seem as a trapezoid. This exaggeration is referred to as foreshortening.

Perspective drawings have a environment line, that is mostly implied. This line, directly conflicting a viewer’s eye, represents objects forever apart away. They have shrunk, in a distance, to a microscopic density of a line. It is homogeneous to (and named after) a Earth’s horizon.

Any viewpoint portrayal of a entertainment that includes together lines has one or some-more declining points in a viewpoint drawing. A one-point viewpoint sketch means that a sketch has a singular declining point, customarily (though not necessarily) directly conflicting a viewer’s eye and customarily (though not necessarily) on a environment line. All lines together with a viewer’s line of steer incline to a environment towards this declining point. This is a customary “receding tyrannise tracks” phenomenon. A two-point sketch would have lines together to dual conflicting angles. Any array of declining points are probable in a drawing, one for any set of together lines that are during an angle relations to a craft of a drawing.

Perspectives consisting of many together lines are distinguished many mostly when sketch design (architecture frequently uses lines together to a x, y, and z axes). Because it is singular to have a entertainment consisting customarily of lines together to a 3 Cartesian axes (x, y, and z), it is singular to see perspectives in use with customarily one, two, or 3 declining points; even a elementary residence frequently has a appearance roof that formula in a smallest of 6 sets of together lines, in spin analogous to adult to 6 declining points.

In contrast, healthy scenes mostly do not have any sets of together lines and so no declining points.

History[edit]

48px Ambox globe content.svg Perspective (graphical)

The examples and viewpoint in this territory may not paint a worldwide viewpoint of a subject. Please urge this essay and plead a emanate on a speak page. (March 2013)

Early history[edit]

The beginning art paintings and drawings typically sized many objects and characters hierarchically according to their devout or thematic importance, not their stretch from a viewer, and did not use foreshortening. The many critical total are mostly shown as a tip in a composition, also from hieratic motives, heading to a “vertical perspective”, common in a art of Ancient Egypt, where a organisation of “nearer” total are shown next a incomparable figure or figures. The customarily routine to prove a relations position of elements in a multiple was by overlapping, of that many use is done in works like a Parthenon Marbles.

300px Reconstruction of the temple of Jerusalem Perspective (graphical)

250px StPaul%27sCross Perspective (graphical)

Systematic attempts to develop a complement of viewpoint are customarily deliberate to have begun around a fifth century BC. in a art of Ancient Greece, as partial of a building seductiveness in illusionism associated to melodramatic viewpoint and minute within Aristotle’s Poetics as ‘skenographia’: Using prosaic panels on a entertainment to give a apparition of depth.[2] The philosophers Anaxagoras and Democritus worked out geometric theories of viewpoint for use with skenographia. Alcibiades had paintings in his residence designed shaped on skenographia, so this art was not cramped merely to a stage. Euclid’s Optics introduced a mathematical speculation of perspective; however, there is some plead over a border to that Euclid’s viewpoint coincides with a complicated mathematical clarification of perspective.

By a after durations of antiquity, artists, generally those in reduction renouned traditions, were good wakeful that apart objects could be shown smaller than those tighten during palm for increasing illusionism, yet possibly this gathering was indeed used in a work depended on many factors. Some of a paintings found in a hull of Pompeii uncover a conspicuous realism and viewpoint for their time;[3] it has been claimed that extensive systems of viewpoint were developed in antiquity, yet many scholars do not accept this. Hardly any of a many works where such a complement would have been used have survived. A thoroughfare in Philostratus suggests that exemplary artists and theorists suspicion in terms of “circles” during equal stretch from a viewer, like a exemplary semi-circular entertainment seen from a stage.[4] The roof beams in bedrooms in a Vatican Virgil, from about 400 AD, are shown converging, some-more or less, on a common declining point, yet this is not evenly associated to a rest of a composition.[5] In a Late Antique duration use of viewpoint techniques declined. The art of a new cultures of a Migration Period had no tradition of attempting compositions of vast numbers of total and Early Medieval art was delayed and unsuitable in relearning a gathering from exemplary models, yet a routine can be seen underway in Carolingian art.

European Medieval artists were wakeful of a ubiquitous component of varying a relations stretch of elements according to distance, yet even some-more than exemplary art was ideally prepared to overrule it for other reasons. Buildings were mostly shown obliquely according to a sold convention. The use and sophistication of attempts to communicate stretch increasing customarily during a period, yet yet a basement in a systematic theory. Byzantine art was also wakeful of these principles, yet also had a retreat viewpoint gathering for a environment of principal figures.

Giotto attempted drawings in viewpoint regulating an algebraic routine to establish a chain of apart lines. One of Giotto’s initial uses of his algebraic routine of viewpoint was Jesus Before Caiaphas. Although a design does not heed to a modern, geometrical routine of perspective, it does give a substantial apparition of depth, and was a vast step brazen in Western art.[citation needed]

With a disproportion of dice,[6]heraldry typically ignores viewpoint in a diagnosis of charges, yet infrequently in after centuries charges are specified as in perspective.

170px Paolo uccello%2C studio di vaso in prospettiva 02 Perspective (graphical)

Renaissance : Mathematical basis[edit]

40px Text document with red question mark.svg Perspective (graphical)

This territory may enclose inapt or misinterpreted citations that do not determine a text. Please assistance urge this essay by checking for inaccuracies. (help, talk, get involved!) (September 2010)

By a 14th century, Alhazen’s Book of Optics was accessible in Italian translation, entitled Deli Aspecti. The Renaissance artist Lorenzo Ghiberti relied heavily on this work, quoting it “verbatim and during length” while framing his comment of art and a cultured imperatives in a “Commentario terzo.” Alhazen’s work was so “central to a growth of Ghiberti’s suspicion about art and visible aesthetics” and “may good have been executive to a growth of fake viewpoint in early Renaissance Italian painting.”[7][8][citation needed]

External video

210px %C3%9Altima Cena   Da Vinci 5 Perspective (graphical)
16px Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Perspective (graphical)Linear Perspective: Brunelleschi’s Experiment, Smarthistory[9]
16px Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Perspective (graphical)How One-Point Linear Perspective Works, Smarthistory[10]
16px Nuvola apps kaboodle.svg Perspective (graphical)Empire of a Eye: The Magic of Illusion: The Trinity-Masaccio, Part 2, National Gallery of Art[11]

In about 1413 a contemporary of Ghiberti, Filippo Brunelleschi, demonstrated a geometrical routine of perspective, used currently by artists, by portrayal a outlines of several Florentine buildings onto a mirror. When a building’s outline was continued, he beheld that all of a lines converged on a environment line. According to Vasari, he afterwards set adult a proof of his portrayal of a Baptistery in a deficient pathway of a Duomo. He had a spectator demeanour by a tiny hole on a behind of a painting, confronting a Baptistery. He would afterwards set adult a mirror, confronting a viewer, that reflected his painting. To a viewer, a portrayal of a Baptistery and a Baptistery itself were scarcely indistinguishable.[citation needed]

Soon after, scarcely any artist in Florence and in Italy used geometrical viewpoint in their paintings,[12] particularly Masolino da Panicale and Donatello. Donatello started sculpting elaborate checkerboard floors into a elementary manger portrayed in a birth of Christ. Although frequency historically accurate, these checkerboard floors obeyed a primary laws of geometrical perspective: a lines converged approximately to a declining point, and a rate during that a craft lines receded into a stretch was graphically determined. This became an constituent partial of Quattrocento art. Melozzo da Forlì initial used a technique of ceiling foreshortening (in Rome, Loreto, Forlì and others), and was distinguished for that. Not customarily was viewpoint a approach of display depth, it was also a new routine of component a painting. Paintings began to uncover a single, one scene, rather than a multiple of several.

300px Loreto Fresko Perspective (graphical)

300px Entrega de las llaves a San Pedro %28Perugino%29 Perspective (graphical)

As shown by a discerning proliferation of accurate viewpoint paintings in Florence, Brunelleschi expected accepted (with assistance from his crony a mathematician Toscanelli),[13] yet did not publish, a arithmetic behind perspective. Decades later, his crony Leon Battista Alberti wrote De pictura (1435/1436), a dissertation on scold methods of display stretch in painting. Alberti’s primary breakthrough was not to uncover a arithmetic in terms of conical projections, as it indeed appears to a eye. Instead, he formulated a speculation shaped on planar projections, or how a rays of light, flitting from a viewer’s eye to a landscape, would strike a design craft (the painting). He was afterwards means to calculate a apparent tallness of a apart intent regulating dual matching triangles. The arithmetic behind matching triangles is comparatively simple, carrying been prolonged ago formulated by Euclid. In observation a wall, for instance, a initial triangle has a zenith during a user’s eye, and vertices during a tip and bottom of a wall. The bottom of this triangle is a stretch from a spectator to a wall. The second, matching triangle, has a prove during a viewer’s eye, and has a length equal to a viewer’s eye from a painting. The tallness of a second triangle can afterwards be dynamic by a elementary ratio, as proven by Euclid. Alberti was also lerned in a scholarship of optics by a propagandize of Padua and underneath a change of Biagio Pelacani da Parma who complicated Alhazen’s Optics (see what was remarkable above in this courtesy with honour to Ghiberti).

Piero della Francesca elaborated on Della Pittura in his De Prospectiva Pingendi in a 1470s. Alberti had singular himself to total on a belligerent craft and giving an altogether basement for perspective. Della Francesca fleshed it out, categorically covering solids in any area of a design plane. Della Francesca also started a now common use of regulating illustrated total to explain a mathematical concepts, creation his dissertation easier to know than Alberti’s. Della Francesca was also a initial to accurately pull a Platonic solids as they would seem in perspective.

Perspective remained, for a while, a domain of Florence. Jan outpost Eyck, among others, was incompetent to emanate a unchanging structure for a concentration lines in paintings, as in London’s The Arnolfini Portrait, given he was unknowingly of a fanciful breakthrough customarily afterwards occurring in Italy. However he achieved really pointed effects by manipulations of scale in his interiors. Gradually, and partly by a transformation of academies of a arts, a Italian techniques became partial of a training of artists conflicting Europe, and after other collection of a world.

The perfection of these Renaissance traditions finds a ultimate singularity in a investigate of a architect, geometer, and optician Girard Desargues on perspective, optics and projective geometry.

Present : Computer graphics[edit]

3-D mechanism games and ray-tracers mostly use a mutated chronicle of perspective. Like a painter, a mechanism module is generally not endangered with any ray of light that is in a scene. Instead, a module simulates rays of light roving retrograde from a guard (one for any pixel), and checks to see what it hits. In this way, a module does not have to discriminate a trajectories of millions of rays of light that pass from a light source, strike an object, and skip a viewer.[dubious ]

CAD software, and some mechanism games (especially games regulating 3-D polygons) use linear algebra, and in sold pattern multiplication, to emanate a clarity of perspective. The entertainment is a set of points, and these points are projected to a craft (computer screen)[dubious ] in front of a viewpoint prove (the viewer’s eye). The problem of viewpoint is simply anticipating a analogous coordinates on a craft analogous to a points in a scene. By a theories of linear algebra, a pattern computation directly computes a preferred coordinates, so bypassing any detailed geometry theorems used in viewpoint drawing.[dubious ].

Types of perspective[edit]

Of a many forms of viewpoint drawings, a many common categorizations of fake viewpoint are one-, two- and three-point. The names of these categories impute to a array of declining points in a viewpoint drawing.

One-point perspective[edit]

100px Perspective 1point.svg Perspective (graphical)

A sketch has one-point viewpoint when it contains customarily one declining prove on a environment line. This form of viewpoint is typically used for images of roads, railway tracks, hallways, or buildings beheld so that a front is directly confronting a viewer. Any objects that are done adult of lines possibly directly together with a viewer’s line of steer or directly perpendicular (the tyrannise slats) can be represented with one-point perspective. These together lines join during a declining point.

One-point viewpoint exists when a portrayal design (also famous as a design plane) is together to dual axes of a craft (or Cartesian) entertainment – a entertainment that is stoical wholly of linear elements that join customarily during right angles. If one pivot is together with a design plane, afterwards all elements are possibly together to a portrayal design (either horizontally or vertically) or perpendicular to it. All elements that are together to a portrayal design are drawn as together lines. All elements that are perpendicular to a portrayal design join during a singular prove (a declining point) on a horizon.

Two-point perspective[edit]

100px Perspective 2point.svg Perspective (graphical)

210px Perspective1 Perspective (graphical)

A sketch has two-point viewpoint when it contains dual declining points on a environment line. In an illustration, these declining points can be placed arbitrarily along a horizon. Two-point viewpoint can be used to pull a same objects as one-point perspective, rotated: looking during a dilemma of a house, or looking during dual split roads cringe into a distance, for example. One prove represents one set of together lines, a other prove represents a other. Looking during a residence from a corner, one wall would incline towards one declining point, a other wall would incline towards a conflicting declining point.

Two-point viewpoint exists when a portrayal design is together to a Cartesian entertainment in one pivot (usually a z-axis) yet not to a other dual axes. If a entertainment being beheld consists customarily of a cylinder sitting on a craft plane, no disproportion exists in a design of a cylinder between a one-point and two-point perspective.

Two-point viewpoint has one set of lines together to a design craft and dual sets ambiguous to it. Parallel lines ambiguous to a design craft join to a declining point,which means that this set-up will need dual declining points.

300px 2 pt sketchup Perspective (graphical)

Three-point perspective[edit]

100px Perspective 3point.svg Perspective (graphical)

Three-point viewpoint is customarily used for buildings seen from above (or below). In further to a dual declining points from before, one for any wall, there is now one for how those walls incline into a ground. This third declining prove will be next a ground. Looking adult during a high building is another common instance of a third declining point. This time a third declining prove is high in space.

Three-point viewpoint exists when a viewpoint is a viewpoint of a Cartesian entertainment where a design craft is not together to any of a scene’s 3 axes. Each of a 3 declining points corresponds with one of a 3 axes of a scene. One-point, two-point, and three-point perspectives seem to consolidate conflicting forms of distributed perspective. The methods compulsory to beget these perspectives by palm are different. Mathematically, however, all 3 are identical: The disproportion is simply in a relations course of a craft entertainment to a viewer.

300px Rome Palace of Labor Perspective (graphical)

Four-point perspective[edit]

Four-point perspective, also called infinite-point perspective, is a curvilinear several of two-point perspective. As a outcome when done into an gigantic prove chronicle (i.e. when a volume of declining points exceeds a smallest volume required), a 4 prove viewpoint design becomes a scenery that can go to a 360 grade viewpoint and over – when going over a 360 grade viewpoint a artist competence etch an “impossible” room as a artist competence etch something new when it’s ostensible to uncover partial of what already exists within those 360 degrees. This elongated support can be used both horizontally and plumb and when used plumb can be described as an design that depicts both a worm’s- and bird’s-eye viewpoint of a entertainment during a same time.

Like all other foreshortened variants of viewpoint (respectively one- to six-point perspective), it starts off with a environment line, followed by 4 equally spaced declining points to delineate 4 true lines.

The declining points done to emanate a curvilinear orthogonals are so done ad hoc on a 4 true lines placed on a conflicting side of a environment line. The customarily dimension not foreshortened in this form of viewpoint is a craft and together lines perpendicular to a environment line – matching to a true lines used in two-point perspective.

Zero-point perspective[edit]

Because declining points exist customarily when together lines are benefaction in a scene, a viewpoint with no declining points (“zero-point” perspective) occurs if a spectator is watching a non-linear scene. [14] The many common instance of a nonlinear entertainment is a healthy entertainment (e.g., a towering range) that frequently does not enclose any together lines. A viewpoint yet declining points can still emanate a clarity of depth.

Other varieties of linear perspective[edit]

One-point, two-point, and three-point viewpoint are contingent on a structure of a entertainment being viewed. These customarily exist for despotic Cartesian (rectilinear) scenes. By inserting into a Cartesian entertainment a set of together lines that are not together to any of a 3 axes of a scene, a new graphic declining prove is created. Therefore, it is probable to have an infinite-point viewpoint if a entertainment being beheld is not a Cartesian entertainment yet instead consists of gigantic pairs of together lines, where any span is not together to any other pair. Zero prove viewpoint viewpoint is also famous as betterment of any object

Foreshortening[edit]

220px Perspective foreshortening.svg Perspective (graphical)

220px Andrea Mantegna   The Lamentation over the Dead Christ   WGA13981 Perspective (graphical)

220px PIA08170 Epimetheus and Janus Perspective (graphical)

Foreshortening is a visible outcome or visible apparition that causes an intent or stretch to seem shorter than it indeed is given it is pointed toward a viewer. Additionally, an intent is mostly not scaled evenly: a round mostly appears as an ellipse and a block can seem as a trapezoid.

Although foreshortening is an critical component in art where visible viewpoint is being depicted, foreshortening occurs in other forms of two-dimensional representations of three-dimensional scenes. Some other forms where foreshortening can start embody ambiguous together projection drawings. Foreshortening also occurs when imaging imperishable turf regulating a fake orifice radar system.[citation needed]

In painting, foreshortening in a depiction of a tellurian figure was polished in a Italian Renaissance, and a The Lamentation over a Dead Christ by Andrea Mantegna (1480s) is one of a many famous of a array of works that uncover off a new technique, that afterward became a customary partial of a training of artists.

Methods of construction[edit]

Several methods of constructing perspectives exist, including:

  • Freehand sketching (common in art)
  • Graphically constructing (once common in architecture)
  • Using a viewpoint grid
  • Computing a viewpoint renovate (common in 3D mechanism applications)
  • Mimicry regulating collection such as a proportional divider (sometimes called a variscaler)

Example[edit]

220px Drawing Square in Perspective 2.svg Perspective (graphical)

220px Drawing Square in Perspective 1.svg Perspective (graphical)

One of a many common, and earliest, uses of geometrical viewpoint is a checkerboard floor. It is a elementary yet distinguished focus of one-point perspective. Many of a properties of viewpoint sketch are used while sketch a checkerboard. The checkerboard building is, essentially, customarily a multiple of a array of squares. Once a singular block is drawn, it can be widened or subdivided into a checkerboard. Where necessary, lines and points will be referred to by their colors in a diagram.

To pull a block in perspective, a artist starts by sketch a environment line (black) and last where a declining prove (green) should be. The aloft adult a environment line is, a reduce a spectator will seem to be looking, and clamp versa. The some-more off-center a declining point, a some-more slanted a block will be. Because a block is done adult of right angles, a declining prove should be directly in a core of a environment line. A rotated block is drawn regulating two-point perspective, with any set of together lines heading to a conflicting declining point.

The inaugural dilemma of a (orange) block is drawn nearby a bottom of a painting. Because a viewer’s design craft is together to a bottom of a square, this line is horizontal. Lines joining any side of a inaugural dilemma to a declining prove are drawn (in grey). These lines give a basic, one prove “railroad tracks” perspective. The closer it is a environment line, a over divided it is from a viewer, and a smaller it will appear. The over divided from a spectator it is, a closer it is to being perpendicular to a design plane.

A new prove (the eye) is now chosen, on a environment line, possibly to a left or right of a declining point. The stretch from this prove to a declining prove represents a stretch of a spectator from a drawing. If this prove is really apart from a declining point, a block will seem squashed, and apart away. If it is close, it will seem stretched out, as if it is really tighten to a viewer.

A line joining this prove to a conflicting dilemma of a block is drawn. Where this (blue) line hits a side of a square, a craft line is drawn, representing a farthest dilemma of a square. The line customarily drawn represents a ray of light roving from a farthest dilemma of a block to a viewer’s eye. This step is pivotal to bargain viewpoint drawing. The light that passes by a design craft apparently can not be traced. Instead, lines that paint those rays of light are drawn on a design plane. In a box of a square, a side of a block also represents a design craft (at an angle), so there is a tiny shortcut: when a line hits a side of a square, it has also strike a suitable symbol in a design plane. The (blue) line is drawn to a conflicting dilemma of a inaugural dilemma given of another shortcut: given all sides are a same length, a inaugural dilemma can mount in for a side edge.

Original formulations used, instead of a side of a square, a true line to one side, representing a design plane. Each line drawn by this craft was matching to a line of steer from a viewer’s eye to a drawing, customarily rotated around a y-axis ninety degrees. It is, conceptually, an easier approach of meditative of perspective. It can be simply shown that both methods are mathematically identical, and outcome in a same chain of a farthest side.

Limitations[edit]

Plato was one of a initial to plead a problems of perspective. “Thus (through perspective) any arrange of difficulty is suggested within us; and this is that debility of a tellurian mind on that a art of conjuring and of deceiving by light and shade and other inventive inclination imposes, carrying an outcome on us like magic… And a humanities of measuring and numbering and weighing come to a rescue of a tellurian bargain – there is a beauty of them – and a apparent incomparable or less, or some-more or heavier, no longer have a poise over us, yet give approach before calculation and magnitude and weight?”[15]

220px Hogarth satire on false pespective 1753 Perspective (graphical)

Perspective images are distributed presumption a sold declining point. In sequence for a ensuing design to seem matching to a strange scene, a spectator of a viewpoint contingency viewpoint a design from a accurate vantage prove used in a calculations relations to a image. This cancels out what would seem to be distortions in a design when beheld from a conflicting point. These apparent distortions are some-more conspicuous divided from a core of a design as a angle between a projected ray (from a entertainment to a eye) becomes some-more strident relations to a design plane. In practice, unless a spectator chooses an impassioned angle, like looking during it from a bottom dilemma of a window, a viewpoint routinely looks some-more or reduction correct. This is referred to as “Zeeman’s Paradox.”[16] It has been suggested that a sketch in viewpoint still seems to be in viewpoint during other spots given we still know it as a drawing, given it lacks abyss of margin cues.[17]

For a customary perspective, however, a margin of viewpoint is slight adequate (often customarily 60 degrees) that a distortions are further minimal adequate that a design can be beheld from a prove other than a tangible distributed vantage prove yet appearing significantly distorted. When a incomparable angle of viewpoint is required, a customary routine of raised rays onto a prosaic design craft becomes impractical. As a fanciful maximum, a margin of viewpoint of a prosaic design craft contingency be reduction than 180 degrees (as a margin of viewpoint increases towards 180 degrees, a compulsory extent of a design craft approaches infinity).

To emanate a projected ray design with a vast margin of view, one can plan a design onto a winding surface. To have a vast margin of viewpoint horizontally in a image, a aspect that is a true cylinder (i.e., a pivot of a cylinder is together to a z-axis) will sufficient (similarly, if a preferred vast margin of viewpoint is customarily in a true instruction of a image, a craft cylinder will suffice). A cylindrical design aspect will concede for a projected ray design adult to a full 360 degrees in possibly a craft or true dimension of a viewpoint design (depending on a course of a cylinder). In a same way, by regulating a round design surface, a margin of viewpoint can be a full 360 degrees in any instruction (note that for a round surface, all projected rays from a entertainment to a eye join a aspect during a right angle).

Just as a customary viewpoint design contingency be beheld from a distributed vantage prove for a design to seem matching to a loyal scene, a projected design onto a cylinder or globe contingency further be beheld from a distributed vantage prove for it to be precisely matching to a strange scene. If an design projected onto a cylindrical aspect is “unrolled” into a prosaic image, conflicting forms of distortions occur. For example, many of a scene’s loyal lines will be drawn as curves. An design projected onto a round aspect can be flattened in several ways:

  • An design homogeneous to an unrolled cylinder
  • A apportionment of a globe can be flattened into an design homogeneous to a customary perspective
  • An design matching to a fisheye photograph

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Perspective Drawing Handbook By Joseph D’Amelio, p. 19, published by Dover Publications
  2. ^ “Skenographia in Fifth Century”. CUNY. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  3. ^ “Pompeii. House of a Vettii. Fauces and Priapus”. SUNY Buffalo. Retrieved 2007-12-27. 
  4. ^ Panofsky, 122, note 1
  5. ^ Vatican Virgil image
  6. ^ http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Objects_in_heraldry
  7. ^ A. Mark Smith (2001), “The Latin Source of a Fourteenth-Century Italian Translation of Alhacen’s De aspectibus (Vat. Lat. 4595)”, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy: A Historical Journal (Cambridge University Press) 11: 27–43 [28], doi:10.1017/s0957423901001035 
  8. ^ See: Nader El-Bizri, ‘A Philosophical Perspective on Alhazen’s Optics’, Arabic Sciences and Philosophy (Cambridge University Press), Volume 15 (2005), pp. 189-218; Nader El-Bizri, ‘Ibn al-Haytham et le problème de la couleur’, Oriens-Occidens: Cahiers du centre d’histoire des sciences et des philosophies arabes et médiévales, Volume 7 (2009), pp. 201-226.
  9. ^ “Linear Perspective: Brunelleschi’s Experiment”. Smarthistory during Khan Academy. Retrieved May 12, 2013. 
  10. ^ “How One-Point Linear Perspective Works”. Smarthistory during Khan Academy. Retrieved May 12, 2013. 
  11. ^ “Empire of a Eye: The Magic of Illusion: The Trinity-Masaccio, Part 2”. National Gallery of Art during ArtBabble. Retrieved May 12, 2013. 
  12. ^ “…and these works (of viewpoint by Brunelleschi) were a means of arousing a minds of a other craftsmen, who afterwords clinging themselves to this with good zeal.”
    Vasari’s Lives of a Artists Chapter on Brunelleschi
  13. ^ “Messer Paolo dal Pozzo Toscanelli, carrying returned from his studies, invited Filippo with other friends to repast in a garden, and a sermon descending on mathematical subjects, Filippo shaped a loyalty with him and schooled geometry from him.”
    Vasarai’s Lives of a Artists, Chapter on Brunelleschi
  14. ^ Basant, Agrawal (2008). Engineering Drawing. New Delhi: Tata McGraw-Hill. p. 17-2. ISBN 978-0-07-066863-8. 
  15. ^ Plato’s Republic, Book X, 602d. http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/mirror/classics.mit.edu/Plato/republic.11.x.html
  16. ^ Mathographics by Robert Dixon New York: Dover, p. 82, 1991.
  17. ^ “…the antithesis is quite conceptual: it assumes we viewpoint a viewpoint portrayal as a retinal simulation, when in fact we viewpoint it as a dual dimensional painting. In other words, viewpoint constructions emanate visible symbols, not visible illusions. The pivotal is that paintings miss a abyss of margin cues combined by binocular vision; we are always wakeful a portrayal is prosaic rather than deep. And that is how a mind interprets it, adjusting a bargain of a portrayal to recompense for a position.”
    http://www.handprint.com/HP/WCL/perspect1.html Retrieved on 25 Dec 2006

References[edit]

  • Panofsky, Erwin (1960). Renaissance and Renascences in Western Art. Stockholm: Almqvist Wiksell. ISBN 0-06-430026-9. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Andersen, Kirsti (2007). The Geometry of an Art: The History of a Mathematical Theory of Perspective from Alberti to Monge. Springer. 
  • Damisch, Hubert (1994). The Origin of Perspective, Translated by John Goodman. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 
  • Hyman, Isabelle, comp (1974). Brunelleschi in Perspective. Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice-Hall. 
  • Kemp, Martin (1992). The Science of Art: Optical Themes in Western Art from Brunelleschi to Seurat. Yale University Press. 
  • Pérez-Gómez, Alberto, and Pelletier, Louise (1997). Architectural Representation and a Perspective Hinge. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. 
  • Vasari, Giorgio (1568). The Lives of a Artists. Florence, Italy. 
  • Gill, Robert W (1974). Perspective From Basic to Creative. Australia: Thames Hudson. 

External links[edit]

30px Commons logo.svg Perspective (graphical)
Wikimedia Commons has media associated to Perspective.
30px Commons logo.svg Perspective (graphical)
Wikimedia Commons has media associated to Evolution of Perspective.

 Perspective (graphical)

Article source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspective_(graphical)

نوامبر 302014
 

Perspektive steht für:

  • Perspektive, Möglichkeiten der räumlich wirkenden Abbildung von Objekten auf Flächen
  • Erste-Person-Perspektive, ein Konzept der Philosophie, das in der Erkenntnistheorie und der Ethik diskutiert wird
  • Erzählperspektive, die Sichtweise des Erzählers in der Literatur und narrativen Medien
  • perspektive (Zeitschrift), eine seit 1977 erscheinende Grazer Zeitschrift für zeitgenössische Literatur
  • Perspektiven (Chor), christlicher Jugendchor

Siehe auch:

16px Wiktfavicon en.svg Perspektive (Begriffsklärung) – Wikipedia Wiktionary: Perspektive – Bedeutungserklärungen, Wortherkunft, Synonyme, Übersetzungen
13px Wikiquote logo.svg Perspektive (Begriffsklärung) – Wikipedia Wikiquote: Perspektive – Zitate

28px Disambig dark.svg Perspektive (Begriffsklärung) – Wikipedia
Diese Seite ist eine Begriffsklärung zur Unterscheidung mehrerer mit demselben Wort bezeichneter Begriffe.
 Perspektive (Begriffsklärung) – Wikipedia

Article source: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspektive_(Begriffskl%C3%A4rung)

نوامبر 302014
 

Studenten der DigiPen Universität haben mit Perspective einen ganz spezielles Jump Run-Game entwickelt. In der Spielwelt werden 2D- und 3D-Ansichten vermischt – so entsteht ein völlig neues Spielkonzept.

Blockaden, an denen Sie in einer 2D-Welt verzweifeln würden, können Sie durch einen Wechsel der Perspektive im 3D-Raum ganz einfach beseitigen.

Sie betrachten die Spielfigur innerhalb eines normalen 3D-Raumes, die Figur selber bewegt sich aber innerhalb der Einschränkungen einer 2D-Welt. Je nachdem, wie Sie die Kamera ausrichten, verbinden sich Laufwege oder öffnen sich Passagen.

Das Spiel ist in Etappen unterteilt und verbindet die einzelnen Spielelemente über alte Videospiel-Automaten.

Fazit: Perspective ist ein Pflichtspiel für Jump Run-Fans, die vor kniffligen Rätseln nicht zurückschrecken und tummy innerhalb von 2D- und 3D-Ansichten querdenken können.

Article source: http://www.chip.de/downloads/Perspective_60444034.html

نوامبر 302014
 

25px Disambig dark.svg Perspektive – Wikipedia
Dieser Artikel behandelt die Perspektive im geometrischen Sinn und in der bildlichen Darstellung; zu weiteren Bedeutungen siehe Perspektive (Begriffsklärung).
24px Qsicon Ueberarbeiten.svg Perspektive – Wikipedia
Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt bedarf einer Überarbeitung. Näheres ist auf der auf der Diskussionsseite unter dem Stichwort “Notlage” angegeben. Hilf mit, ihn zu verbessern, und entferne anschließend diese Markierung.

Perspektive (von lateinisch perspicere‚ hindurchsehen, hindurchblicken) bezeichnet die räumlichen, insbesondere linearen Verhältnisse von Objekten im Raum: Das Abstandsverhältnis von Objekten im Raum in Bezug auf basement Standort des Betrachters. Damit ist die Perspektive stets an basement Ort des Betrachters gebunden und kann nur durch Veränderung der Orte der Objekte und des Betrachters im Raum verändert werden.

Diese Feststellung ist dahingehend wichtig, als dass eine andere Perspektive nicht durch Veränderung des Betrachtungsausschnitts (z. B. durch Verwendung eines Zoom-Objektivs in der Fotografie) herbeigeführt werden kann.

Die perspektivische Darstellung fasst die Möglichkeiten zusammen, dreidimensionale Objekte auf einer zweidimensionalen Fläche so abzubilden, dass dennoch ein räumlicher Eindruck entsteht.

330px Zentralperspektive zeichnen Perspektive – Wikipedia

Arten perspektivischer Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

220px Paintings from the Chauvet cave %28museum replica%29 Perspektive – Wikipedia

220px %C3%84gyptischer Maler um 1500 v. Chr. 001 Perspektive – Wikipedia

  • Geometrische Projektionsverfahren.
    • Zentralprojektion: Sehstrahlen gehen von einem Augpunkt aus, raumparallele Kanten scheinen in der Projektion in einen Punkt zu flüchten.
      • Zentralperspektive: Zentralprojektion, eine Raumfläche liegt together zur Bildebene, diese wird bildparallel abgebildet, die andere quadratic dazu – deren Raumflächen fluchten in einem Punkt
      • 2-Punktperspektive (Übereckperspektive): Zentralprojektion, die horizontparallelen Raumkanten sind nicht bildebenenparallel und flüchten in ihrem jeweiligen Fluchtpunkt, die Vertikalen werden bildparallel abgebildet.
      • Froschperspektive: Zentralprojektion, es gibt keine bildebenenparallelen Raumkanten, der Augpunkt liegt unter dem abgebildeten Gegenstand
      • Vogelperspektive: Zentralprojektion, es gibt keine bildebenenparallelen Raumkanten, der Augpunkt liegt über dem abgebildeten Gegenstand
    • Fischaugenprojektion: sphärische Projektion. Linien, die nicht durch das Zentrum gehen, werden gekrümmt, Flächen am Rand kleiner abgebildet, als in Bildmitte, der Blickwinkel erreicht 180 Grad und mehr.
    • Parallelprojektion[1]: Sehstrahlen verlaufen parallel, raumparallele Kanten werden in der Projektion ebenfalls together abgebildet.
      • Orthogonalprojektion: Sehstrahlen treffen rechtwinklig auf die Projektionsfläche.
        • Hauptriss (Dreitafelprojektion)
        • Axonometrie
          • isometrisch
          • dimetrisch (Dimetrie)
          • trimetrisch
      • schiefwinklig: Sehstrahlen treffen in einem schrägen Winkel auf die Projektionsfläche.
        • Kavalier (Kavalierperspektive)
        • Kabinett
        • Militär
    • Panoramabild: Beim Panoramabild erfolgt die Abbildung zunächst auf eine zylinderförmige Fläche, die dann in eine Ebene aufgerollt werden kann. Es gibt aber auch große Panoramen, die als Zylinder aufgestellt sind. Parallele Linien werden nur im Sonderfall together abgebildet. Man erreicht einen Blickwinkel von 180 Grad und mehr (bis 360 Grad).
  • Bedeutungsperspektive: Begriff in der Malerei. Die Größe der dargestellten Figuren und Gegenstände hängt von deren Bildbedeutung ab, nicht von basement räumlich-geometrischen Gegebenheiten.
  • Luft- und Farbperspektive: Die Farb- und Helligkeitskontraste nehmen in die Ferne ab – Farben erscheinen matter, meistens heller und details Blau verschoben
  • Verdrehte Perspektive: zuerst in basement europäischen Höhlenbildern,[2] später besonders auffallend in der altägyptischen Kunst, noch später häufig in der Moderne, etwa bei Pablo Picasso.

Geschichte[Bearbeiten]

330px 358durer Perspektive – Wikipedia

Die perspektivische Darstellung räumlicher Situationen findet sich in ersten Ansätzen schon in basement frankokantabrischen Höhlenbildern, etwa in der Grotte von Chauvet vor 30.000 Jahren.[3] Auch in anderen jungpaläolithischen Höhlen wie Trois Frères finden sich perspektivische Verkürzungen.[4] Technisch elaborierte perspektivische Verfahren kannten die Griechen, dann die Römer (siehe auch Skenografie). In Pompeji wurden Wandfresken gefunden, die basement Raum in einen gemalten Garten fortsetzen sollten. In basement darauf folgenden Jahrhunderten wurde dieses Wissen nicht weiterentwickelt; die frühchristliche und mittelalterliche Malerei bediente sich quick ausschließlich der Bedeutungsperspektive, d. h. die Größe der dargestellten Personen und Gegenstände wurde durch deren Bedeutung im Bild bestimmt, nicht durch ihre räumliche Anordnung. Räumliche Wirkung erzielte male quick ausschließlich durch die Kulissenwirkung, die eine Vordergrundebene vor einem Hintergrund unterschied.

In der Renaissance wurde die Zentralperspektive (im Zusammenhang mit der Camera obscura) (wieder-) entdeckt, die in etwa dem Sehen mit einem Auge oder einer verzerrungsfreien fotografischen Abbildung entspricht. Malerarchitekten wie Filippo Brunelleschi (gilt als der „Erfinder“ der Perspektive), Giotto und Leon Battista Alberti schufen Werke, die Motive der christlichen Ikonografie in räumlich korrekt konstruierten Architekturkulissen zeigten.

Anfänglich wurde die Zentralperspektive, die unser Auge produziert, in ihren Gesetzmäßigkeiten nicht erkannt, und die Darstellung erfolgte mittels einer Schnur, die, von einem festen Punkt ausgehend, über ein einfaches Raster in Form eines Drahtgitters zu basement abzubildenden Objekten gespannt wurde. Der Zeichner saß neben dem Gitter und übertrug die Messungen in das Raster seiner Zeichenfläche („perspektivisches Abschnüren“). In einem Buch aus dem Jahre 1436 erläuterte Leon Battista Alberti die mathematischen Methoden, mit denen auf Gemälden eine perspektivische Wirkung zu erzielen sei.

Albrecht Dürer veröffentlichte 1525 sein Buch Underweysung der messung mit dem zirckel un richtscheyt[5], das die erste Zusammenfassung der mathematisch-geometrischen Verfahren der Zentralperspektive darstellte und damit auch die Grundlagen der perspektivischen Konstruktionsverfahren als Teilbereich der Darstellenden Geometrie bildet.

Beispiele für perspektivische Darstellungen[Bearbeiten]

Parallelperspektivische Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

220px Vue Isom%C3%A9trique 3D Tactical RPG Perspektive – Wikipedia

Linien, die in der Wirklichkeit together verlaufen, werden bei der parallelperspektivischen Abbildung gleichfalls together dargestellt. Dadurch wird ein Zusammenlaufen der Linien in Richtung der Fluchtpunkte vermieden, sodass die abgebildeten Flächen tummy erkennbar bleiben. Dieser Effekt ist z. B. von Architekten erwünscht, die bezwecken, dass die Ansichten von Häusern unabhängig vom Blickwinkel immer gleich deutlich sind. Architekten sprechen hier von „Parallelperspektive“.

Axonometrische Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

Axonometrische Darstellungen sind parallelperspektivische Darstellungen. Der Fluchtpunkt ist details Unendliche gerückt. Zu basement axonometrischen Projektionen zählen die isometrische und die dimetrische Darstellung.

Isometrische Axonometrie, nach DIN 5[Bearbeiten]

220px Isometrische Axonometrie Perspektive – Wikipedia

Wird der darzustellende Körper in der Draufsicht um 45° gedreht und in der Seitenansicht hinten so gehoben, dass seine Fläche unter ca. 35,26° (exakt arctan (1/ef5590434a387b3c4427e09d5b08baaf Perspektive – Wikipedia)) zur Grundfläche steht, wird ein räumliches Bild projiziert, bei dem die Höhe (H) senkrecht, die Längen (L) und Tiefen (T) im Winkel von 30° zur Grundlinie erscheinen. Die Richtungen der Breiten- (Längen-), Höhen- und Tiefenausdehnung (beim rechtwinkligen Körper die Richtungen der Kanten) erscheinen in verschiedenen Winkeln, aber nicht rechtwinklig zueinander. Alle drei Richtungen sind gleichmäßig verkürzt, verhalten sich zueinander wie 1:1:1, haben also einen gemeinsamen Maßstab (Isometrie). Ausgehend von einer senkrechten Raumkoordinate (Achse, daher „Axonometrie“) werden alle Kanten bzw. Punkte eines Körpers nur über die, in Wirklichkeit rechtwinklig zueinander stehenden, Raumkoordinaten senkrecht bzw. im Winkel von 30° zur Grundlinie konstruiert. Linien oder Kanten, die nicht die Richtung einer Raumkoordinate haben (z.B. die schräge Giebelkante eines Hauses, die Diagonalen eines Würfels), werden nicht maßstäblich wiedergegeben, können also auch nicht direkt konstruiert werden. Die Endpunkte solcher Linien müssen über einen Umweg mittels der Raumkoordinaten ermittelt werden. Zweckmäßig ist es, in eine solche Darstellung drei Linienmaßstäbe in Richtung der Raumkoordinaten einzuzeichnen, um zu verdeutlichen, dass nur in diesen Richtungen die Maße stimmen. Diese räumliche Darstellungsart ist vorzuziehen bei Körpern mit gleichwertigen Ansichten. Man nennt sie nach DIN 5 Isometrische Axonometrie (s. Abb).

Dimetrische Axonometrie, nach DIN 5[Bearbeiten]

220px Dimetrische Axonometrie Perspektive – Wikipedia

Wird der darzustellende Körper in der Draufsicht und in der Seitenansicht um nur 20° gedreht, entsteht ein räumliches Bild, bei dem die Längen im Winkel von 7°, die Tiefen im Winkel von 42° zur Grundlinie dargestellt werden. Die Tiefen erscheinen gegenüber basement Höhen und Längen um die Hälfte verkürzt. Das räumliche Bild ist also zweimaßstäblich (dimetrisch, z.B. H u. L 1:5, T 1:10). Diese Darstellung wird bei einer gegenüber basement anderen Ansichten besonders wichtigen Vorderansicht verwendet. Unter Beachtung der verschiedenen Winkel und Maßstäbe wird der Körper sonst wie bei der isometrischen Axonometrie gezeichnet. Zur Verdeutlichung sollten hier unbedingt entsprechende Linienmaßstäbe in Form eines Raumachsenkreuzes eingezeichnet werden. Man nennt diese Darstellungsweise nach DIN 5 Dimetrische Axonometrie (s. Abb.).

Schrägprojektion[Bearbeiten]

Bei der Schrägprojektion handelt es sich ebenfalls um eine Parallelprojektion. Im Gegensatz zu axonometrischen Verfahren können hier zwei Achsen unverzerrt gelassen werden, und nur die dritte Achse wird schräg und (eventuell) verkürzt abgebildet.

Als Beispiele seien die Kavalierperspektive und Kabinettperspektive genannt. Bei ersterer ist der Aufriss unverzerrt und Strecken, die dazu senkrecht verlaufen, werden unverkürzt dargestellt, bei letzterer werden diese Strecken auf die Hälfte verkürzt (wie im Bild oben dargestellt).[1]

Eine weitere Bezeichnung für eine spezielle Art der Schrägprojektion ist die Militärperspektive. Hier erfolgt wie bei der Kavalierperspektive keine Verkürzung der dritten Achse. Der Grundriss wird unverzerrt aufgetragen, und senkrechte Strecken werden maßstabsgetreu abgebildet.

Zentralperspektivische Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

220px Zimmerbild 78 Perspektive – Wikipedia

Die einfachste Form der Perspektive bildet die Zentralperspektive. Sie wird vor allem in der Architektur und zur Veranschaulichung benutzt. Raumparallele Kanten werden nicht abbildungsparallel dargestellt, sondern vereinigen sich optisch in einem scheinbaren, gedachten Punkt, dem sog. Fluchtpunkt. Dieser auf der Horizontlinie liegende Fluchtpunkt lässt sich über die Schnittstelle finden, die durch die Verlängerung der in der Realität together liegenden Objektkanten entsteht.

Die Zentralperspektive ist eine besondere Form der Fluchtpunktperspektive, bei der sich der Fluchtpunkt in der Bildmitte befindet. Dadurch erhält male meist eine Frontalansicht des Objektes. Es gibt keine Verschiebungen nach rechts oder links, aber nach oben oder unten. Auch wenn durch unterschiedlich verlaufende Objektkanten mehrere Fluchtpunkte entstehen, wie etwa bei der Darstellung eines Hauses, liegen diese alle auf der Horizontlinie. Die dem Betrachter zugewandten Flächen des Objektes sind bildparallel, während die in die Tiefe des Raumes führenden Objektkanten sich scheinbar in einem Fluchtpunkt am Horizont vereinigen.

Weitere Varianten stellen die Perspektiven mit zwei – auch Über-Eck-Perspektiven genannt – oder drei Fluchtpunkten dar. Da bei einer Perspektive mit drei Fluchtpunkten der Horizont notwendigerweise nach oben, bzw. unten wandert, nennt male die jeweiligen Abbildungen auch Froschperspektive oder Vogelperspektive.

220px 2 punktperspektive.svg Perspektive – Wikipedia

220px 3 punktperspektive 1.svg Perspektive – Wikipedia

220px 3 punktperspektive 2 Perspektive – Wikipedia

Zylindrische Projektion[Bearbeiten]

Verschiedene Künstler wie z. B. M. C. Escher haben mit weiteren Varianten der Perspektive experimentiert, wie z. B. der zylindrischen Projektion. Mit dieser Perspektive sind Panoramen von 180° und mehr perspektivisch genuine darstellbar, dabei verzerren sich gerade Linien jedoch zu gekrümmten Kurven. Ein Beispiel dafür ist Eschers Lithografie Treppenhaus I aus dem Jahr 1951 (mit „Krempeltierchen“).

Reliefperspektivische Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

Diese Perspektivart führt nicht zu einer kompletten 2-D-Darstellung, sondern verkürzt nur eine Dimension des 3-D-Raums stark. Dabei verändert sich das Aussehen der aus einem festen Augpunkt betrachteten Objekte nicht, da hinten liegende Objekte bei einem exakten Relief auch entsprechend verkleinert werden.

Bedeutungsperspektivische Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

220px Meister der Reichenauer Schule 002 Perspektive – Wikipedia

In der Zeit vor der Wiederentdeckung der geometrischen Perspektive wird in Tafelbildern die sogenannte Bedeutungsperspektive benutzt. Die Größe und Ausrichtung der im Bild dargestellten Personen richtet sich nach deren Bedeutung: wichtige Protagonisten erscheinen groß, weniger wichtige werden kleiner dargestellt, auch wenn diese sich räumlich vor der anderen Person befinden. In dem Bildbeispiel rechts bezieht sich die quasi-isometrische Perspektive der Fußbänke nur auf die jeweilige Figur – in grafisch-kompositorischer Hinsicht ermöglicht diese Anordnung die (flächige) Öffnung des Bildraumes zum Hintergrund. Die Bedeutungsperspektive wird bereits in der altägyptischen Kunst angewandt: Während der Pharao nebst Gemahlin in voller Größe dargestellt wird, zeigt male Sklaven und Hofstaat sehr viel kleiner. In der Ikonenmalerei findet sich diese Art der Darstellung ebenso wie in der Malerei der Romanik und Gotik. Die Bedeutungsperspektive ist auch heute noch in der naiven Malerei zu finden

Luft- und Farbperspektivische Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

Luft- und Farbperspektive müssen unterschieden werden.

Bei der Luftperspektive wird ein Tiefeneindruck erzeugt, indem die Kontraste von vorne nach hinten abnehmen und die Helligkeit von vorne nach hinten zunimmt. Unabhängig von der Farbe entsteht gleichzeitig durch die nach hinten undeutlicher werdenden Konturen ein Scharf/Unscharf-Kontrast.

Die Farbperspektive sorgt für einen Tiefeneindruck, indem im Vorder-, Mittel- und Hintergrund unterschiedliche Farbtöne widespread eingesetzt werden. Im Vordergrund dominieren warme Farben (gelb, orange, rot, braun), im Mittelgrund und im Hintergrund kältere Grün- und Blautöne. Stattdessen kann auch eine Grün- bzw. Blaustichigkeit vorliegen.

Multiperspektivische Darstellung[Bearbeiten]

220px Die gefrorene Stadt Perspektive – Wikipedia

Eine Multiperspektive bezeichnet eine Raumdarstellung mittels mehrerer Projektionszentren, resp. die Kombination unterschiedlicher Perspektiven, die einen Raum ergeben. Neben dem Gebrauch der Multiperspektive in Standbildern, findet sie auch Anwendung im digitalen Raum an Bewegtbildern. Durch die Anwendung mehrerer Projektionszentren in Bewegtbildern, können Verzerrungen vermieden werden. (Bsp.: Eine Kugel behält ihre Kreisform bei und eine elliptische Form der Kugel durch die Kameraverzerrung wird vermieden.)[6] Die Multiperspektive (im Standbild) findet sich in div. Gemälden der Kunstgeschichte in unterschiedlicher Ausprägung. Eine impassioned Anwendung der Multiperspektive lässt sich in basement Werken des Schweizer Medienkünstlers Matthias Zimmermann finden. Etwa sein Gemälde »Die gefrorene Stadt« zeigt eine Panoramalandschaft, deren Raum und Objekte sich aus div. Perspektiven ergeben (Zentralperspektive, Kavalierperspektive, Militärperspektive, Andeutung eines Fischaugenobjektivs, usw.).

Erfahrungsperspektive[Bearbeiten]

Bei der Erfahrungsperspektive bemühen sich die Künstler, durch genaue Detailbeobachtung das wiederzugeben, was sie sehen. Sie kommen damit der Zentralperspektive sehr nah und erkennen auch, dass Gegenstände im Hintergrund verschwimmen und bläulicher werden (Farbperspektive). Erfahrungsperspektive steht für eine annähernd korrekte Fluchtpunktdarstellung, bevor es italienischen Künstlern nur wenige Jahre später gelang, die Zentralperspektive geometrisch perfekt zu konstruieren.

Siehe auch[Bearbeiten]

  • Fluchtpunktperspektive
  • Raumwahrnehmung
  • Projektive Geometrie
  • Blickwinkel
  • Panoramabild
  • Dreitafelprojektion, Grundriss, Aufsicht, Ansicht, Schnitt
  • Erzählperspektive

Literatur[Bearbeiten]

  • Kirsti Andersen: The Geometry of an Art – The History of a mathematical speculation of viewpoint from Alberti to Monge, Springer 2007
  • Gottfried Boehm: Studien zur Perspektivität. Philosophie und Kunst in der frühen Neuzeit. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag. Heidelberg 1969.
  • Jean-Marie Chauvet: Grotte Chauvet. Altsteinzeitliche Höhlenkunst im Tal der Ardèche. Jan Thorbecke Verlag, Sigmaringen 1995. ISBN 3-7995-9000-5
  • Hubert Damisch: Der Ursprung der Perspektive, aus dem Französischen von Heinz Jatho, diaphanes-Verlag, Zürich 2010 ISBN 978-3-03734-087-5
  • Gertrud Koch (Hg.): Perspektive – Die Spaltung der Standpunkte, Fink Verlag, München 2010. ISBN 978-3-7705-5001-2
  • André Leroi-Gourhan: Prähistorische Kunst. Die Ursprünge der Kunst in Europa. 3. Aufl. Verlag Herder, Freiburg i.Br. 1975, ISBN 3-451-16281-4
  • Hermann Müller-Karpe: Handbuch der Vorgeschichte. Band I: Altsteinzeit. 2. Aufl. C.H.Beck Verlag, München 1977, ISBN 3-406-02008-9
  • Erwin Panofsky: Die Perspektive als ‚symbolische Form‘. Leipzig 1927.
  • Rudolf Wiegmann: Grundzüge der Lehre von der Perspektive. Zum Gebrauch für Maler und Zeichenlehrer. Düsseldorf 1846.
  • Dietlinde Sand / Jürgen Sand: Workshop Zeichnen. Architektur und Perspektive. Englisch Verlag, Wiesbaden 2008, ISBN 978-3-8241-1389-7

Quellennachweise[Bearbeiten]

  1. ab Ebene geometrische Projektionen auf einer Internetseite der Universität Tübingen, mit weiteren Quellenangaben.
  2. Müller-Karpe, S. 195; Leroi-Gourhan, S. 132 ff.
  3. Chauvet, S. 114.
  4. Müller-Karpe, S. 197.
  5. Albrecht Dürer: Underweysung der Messung mit dem Zirckel und Richtscheyt. Verlag A. Wofsy, Nürnberg, Juni 1981. ISBN 0-915346-52-4.
  6. Geometrische Abbildungspraxis – von der Malerei zur Computergrafik (PDF; 5,0 MB)

Weblinks[Bearbeiten]

16px Wiktfavicon en.svg Perspektive – Wikipedia Wiktionary: Perspektive – Bedeutungserklärungen, Wortherkunft, Synonyme, Übersetzungen
12px Commons logo.svg Perspektive – Wikipedia Commons: Perspektive – Sammlung von Bildern, Videos und Audiodateien


 Perspektive – Wikipedia

Article source: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Perspektive